2016年8月29日 星期一

The Great Tradition by FR Leavis

The controversial critic’s statement on English literature is an entertaining,…

MADNESS AND CIVILIZATION: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason by Michel Foucault

"Confined in the ship, from which it is impossible to escape, the madman is confined to the thousand branches of the river, the thousand paths of the sea, to this great uncertainty external to everything. He is a prisoner in the midst of the most free, the most open of roads: chained solidly to an infinite crossroads."
--from MADNESS AND CIVILIZATION: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason by Michel Foucault
Perhaps the French philosopher's masterpiece, which is concerned with an extraordinary question: What does it mean to be mad?

2016年8月28日 星期日


“Those words, though heaven only knew how often she had heard them, still gave her her thrill. They braced her like a tonic. Life acquired significance. She was about to step from the world of make-believe into the world of reality.”

“Some of us look for the Way in opium and some in God, some of us in whiskey and some in love. It is all the same Way and it leads nowhither.”

“How can I be reasonable? To me our love was everything and you were my whole life. It is not very pleasant to realize that to you it was only an episode.”
―from THE PAINTED VEIL by W. Somerset Maugham

Set in England and Hong Kong in the 1920s, The Painted Veil is the story of the beautiful but love-starved Kitty Fane. When her husband discovers her adulterous affair, he forces her to accompany him to the heart of a cholera epidemic. Stripped of the British society of her youth and the small but effective society she fought so hard to attain in Hong Kong, she is compelled by her awakening conscience to reassess her life and learn how to love. READ an excerpt here: http://knopfdoubleday.com/book/109394/the-painted-veil/

"The Sorrows of Young Werther" (1774) by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

“The human race is a monotonous affair. Most people spend the greatest part of their time working in order to live, and what little freedom remains so fills them with fear that they seek out any and every means to be rid of it.”

"No doubt you are right, my best of friends, there would be far less suffering amongst mankind, if men—and God knows why they are so fashioned—did not employ their imaginations so assiduously in recalling the memory of past sorrow, instead of bearing their present lot with equanimity."
--from "The Sorrows of Young Werther" (1774) by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
One of the towering figures of world literature, Goethe has never held quite as prominent a place in the English-speaking world as he deserves. This collection of his four major works, together with a selection of his finest letters and poems, shows that he is not only one of the very greatest European writers: he is also accessible, entertaining, and contemporary. The Sorrows of Young Werther is a story of self-destructive love that made its author a celebrity overnight at the age of twenty-five. Its exploration of the conflicts between ideas and feelings, between circumstance and desire, continues in his controversial novel probing the institution of marriage, Elective Affinities. The cosmic drama of Faust goes far beyond the realism of the novels in a poetic exploration of good and evil, while Italian Journey, written in the author’s old age, recalls his youth in Italy and the impact of Mediterranean culture on a young northerner. Translators includeW.H. Auden, Louise Bogan, David Constantine, Barker Fairley, and Elizabeth Mayer. MORE here:http://knopfdoubleday.com/book/61089/selected-works/

Willa Cather 作品

The University of Nebraska's Willa Cather Digital Archives


Everyman's Library
"The Hawthorn Tree" by Willa Cather
Across the shimmering meadows--
Ah, when he came to me!
In the spring-time,
In the night-time,
In the starlight,
Beneath the hawthorn tree.
Up from the misty marsh-land--
Ah, when he climbed to me!
To my white bower,
To my sweet rest,
To my warm breast,
Beneath the hawthorn tree.
Ask of me what the birds sang,
High in the hawthorn tree;
What the breeze tells,
What the rose smells,
What the stars shine--
Not what he said to me!
Before Willa Cather went on to write the novels that would make her famous, she was known as a poet, the most popular of her poems reprinted many times in national magazines and anthologies. Her first book of poetry, April Twilights, was published in 1903, but Cather significantly revised and expanded it in a 1923 edition entitled April Twilights and Other Poems. This Everyman’s Library edition reproduces for the first time all the poems from both versions of April Twilights, along with a number of uncollected and previously unpublished poems by Cather, as well as an illuminating selection of her newly released letters. In such lyrical poems as “The Hawthorn Tree,” “Winter at Delphi,” “Prairie Spring,” “Poor Marty,” and “Going Home,” Cather exhibits both a finely tuned sensitivity to the beauties of the physical world and a richly symbolic use of the landscapes of myth. The themes that were to animate her later masterpieces found their first expression in these haunting, elegiac ballads and sonnets.

Vintage Books & Anchor Books
"He came to be very glad that he had known her, and that she had had a hand in breaking him in to life. He has known pretty women and clever ones since then,—but never one like her, as she was in her best days. Her eyes, when they laughed for a moment into one's own, seemed to promise a wild delight that he has not found in life. 'I know where it is,' they seemed to say, 'I could show you!'"  
Willa Cather, A LOST LADY
A portrait of a woman who reflects the conventions of her age even as she defies them and whose transformations embody the decline and coarsening of the American frontier.
WillaCather ALostLady.jpg
First edition
AuthorWilla Cather
CountryUnited States
PublisherAlfred A. Knopf
Publication date
September 1923
Media typePrint (Hardback)

翻譯偵探事務所新增了 3 張相片
1956年張心漪翻譯的「殘百合」,暢流出版,譯自美國女作家Willa Cather的小說A Lost Lady(1923)。Willa Cather在1940-1950年代頗受歡迎,湯新楣翻譯的「原野長宵」(後改名「我的安東妮亞」)和「開墾的人」都再版多次。
這本「殘百合」是從一個孩子的角度,描寫一個迷人的少婦。少婦的丈夫比她年長二十五歲,老夫少妻,後來丈夫年事漸高,中風以後,妻子仍在盛年,有次與人偷情被那敘事者看到,遂覺偶像崩壞,無限悵惘..因此書名A Lost Lady。張心漪譯的真好看,但書名讓人想到「殘花敗柳」,似乎有點言重。

1940.12.18 胡適50歲生日後一天給Roberta (Robby) Lowitz*一封信.
說昨天杜威博士給他一封很好的短箋.....兩個晚上前胡適讀 Willa Cather (1873 - 1947) Double Birthday,( set in Pittsburgh, is part of a group referred to as the Pittsburgh stories.) ,說它是其生平讀過的最佳小說之一......."我喜Willa Cather的書. 妳知道她嗎?"......

"Even in American cities, which seem so much alike, where people seem all to be living the same lives, striving for the same things, thinking the same thoughts, there are still individuals a little out of tune with the times - there are still survivals of a past more loosely woven, there are disconcerting beginnings of a future yet unforeseen."
 胡適之先生的世界The World of Dr. Hu Shih: 胡適的愛情神話: 《星星 ...
hushihhc.blogspot.com/.../blog-post_4967.ht...Translate this page
Aug 2, 2012 - 胡適與Roberta (Robby) Lowitz (後來為杜威夫人/師母胡適晚年說Robby是富家女將杜威照顧得很好......)的情緣不過我們看杜威的傳記中怎說她倆的 ...
'The Selected Letters of Willa Cather'
Reviewed by TOM PERROTTA

In her letters, the novelist Willa Cather emerges as a strong and vivid presence, a woman at once surprisingly modern and touchingly - if not always sweetly - old-fashioned.
O Pioneers! is a 1913 novel by American author Willa Cather. It was written in part when Cather was living in Cherry Valley, New York, with Isabelle McClung[1] and was completed at the McClungs' home in Pittsburgh.[2]

啊,拓荒者!資中筠 譯(《閑情記美》內收入1988/1997 二版的介紹----
The Project Gutenberg EBook of O Pioneers!, by Willa Cather ,沒收入文中說的題詞。

Willa Cather was born on this day in 1873 in Virginia, though she lived in Nebraska from age ten.
"The great fact was the land itself, which seemed to overwhelm the little beginnings of human society that struggled in its sombre wastes. It was from facing this vast hardness that the boy's mouth had become so bitter; because he felt that men were too weak to make any mark here, that the land wanted to be let alone, to preserve its own fierce strength, its peculiar, savage kind of beauty, its uninterrupted mournfulness." --from "O Pioneers!" (1913)
No other work of fiction so vividly evokes the harsh beauty and epic sweep of the Nebraska prairies that Cather knew and loved. The heroine of O Pioneers!, Alexandra Bergson, is a young Swedish immigrant at the turn of the twentieth century who inherits her father’s wind-blasted land and, through years of hard work, turns it into a prosperous farm. Fiercely independent, Alexandra sacrifices love and companionship in her passionate devotion to the land, until tragedy strikes and brings with it the chance for a new life.

PRAIRIE SPRING EVENING and the flat land, Rich and sombre and always silent; The miles of fresh-plowed soil, Heavy and black, full of strength and harshness; The growing wheat, the growing weeds, The toiling horses, the tired men; The long empty roads, Sullen fires of sunset, fading, The eternal, unresponsive sky. Against all this, Youth, Flaming like the wild roses, Singing like the larks over the plowed fields, Flashing like a star out of the twilight; Youth with its insupportable sweetness, Its fierce necessity, Its sharp desire, Singing and singing, Out of the lips of silence, Out of the earthy dusk.

Willa Sibert Cather was born in Gore, Virginia on this day in 1873.
"That is happiness; to be dissolved into something complete and great. When it comes to one, it comes as naturally as sleep."
— from 'My Ántonia' by Willa Cather
Often considered her first masterpiece, with 'My Ántonia' Willa Cather created one of the most winning yet thoroughly convincing heroines in American fiction. Ántonia Shimerda, the daughter of Bohemian immigrants, not only survives her father's suicide, poverty, and a failed romance, she triumphs with high spirits. 'My Ántonia' was enthusiastically received in 1918 when it was first published, and placed Cather in the forefront of women novelists.

“In great misfortunes, people want to be alone. They have a right to be. And the misfortunes that occur within one are the greatest. Surely the saddest thing in the world is falling out of love--if once one has ever fallen in.”
―from THE PROFESSOR'S HOUSE by Willa Cather
A study in emotional dislocation and renewal--Professor Godfrey St. Peter, a man in his 50's, has achieved what would seem to be remarkable success. When called on to move to a more comfortable home, something in him rebels.

Everyman's Library
"The sky was as full of motion and change as the desert beneath it was monotonous and still, — and there was so much sky, more than at sea, more than anywhere else in the world. The plain was there, under one's feet, but what one saw when one looked about was that brilliant blue world of stinging air and moving cloud. Even the mountains were mere ant-hills under it. Elsewhere the sky is the roof of the world; but here the earth was the floor of the sky. The landscape one longed for when one was away, the thing all about one, the world one actually lived in, was the sky, the sky!"
--from DEATH COMES FOR THE ARCHBISHOP (1927) by Willa Cather
Willa Cather’s story of the missionary priest Father Jean Marie Latour and his work of faith in the wilderness of the Southwest is told with a spare but sensuous directness and profound artistry. When Latour arrives in 1851 in the territory of New Mexico, newly acquired by the United States, what he finds is a vast desert region of red hills and tortured arroyos that is American by law but Mexican and Indian in custom and belief. Over the next four decades, Latour works gently and tirelessly to spread his faith and to build a soaring cathedral out of the local golden rock—while contending with unforgiving terrain, derelict and sometimes rebellious priests, and his own loneliness. DEATH COMES FOR THE ARCHBISHOP shares a limitless, craggy beauty with the New Mexico landscape of desert, mountain, and canyon in which its central action takes place, and its evocations of that landscape and those who are drawn to it suggest why Cather is acknowledged without question as the most poetically exact chronicler of the American frontier. Introduction by A.S. Byatt. MORE here:http://knopfdoubleday.com/…/death-comes-for-…/9780679413196/

2016年8月27日 星期六

楊允達《巴黎摘星集》《書寫者,看見 (楊允達 篇) :一夢四十年》(陳文發);《塞纳河畔》

《巴黎摘星集》臺北市幼獅文化. 1984


書寫者,看見 (楊允達 篇)
所以您從小的志願,是想當新聞記者?他說:的確,我夢想當記者,而且要當一名戰地記者。您這記者夢,是從何時開始築起的?他和坐我後方的師母曼施,異口同聲的回說:讀高中的時候。他接著說:在成功中學時,讀到美國戰地記者恩尼‧派爾(ERNIE‧PYIE)寫的戰地報導,是正中書局印行,于熙儉翻譯的《大戰隨軍記》。中文版是由《Here is Your War》(這是你的戰爭)與《Barve Men》(勇士們)兩書合訂成一集。是恩尼‧派爾於1942~1945年期間,隨美軍部隊前進北非、西西里島、義大利、法國戰場,以至最後採訪太平洋戰爭中最激烈,死傷慘重的硫磺島戰役。



民 族




6。《非常關係》(海天出版社,2000 )








二 ○一一年琉璃光雜誌八月刊登了一篇我寫的介紹接地氣康復的書Earthing,現在有中文翻譯本-接地氣(註)-是作者Clint Ober 和兩位醫生共同寫的。近年接地氣 ...

許久未見《琉璃光養生世界》。翻了近2期的《琉璃光養生世界》(季刊,2016年8月/5月),每期都有創辦人的文章,還有翻譯一些華德福教學的東西 (與佛法等,玄學)。每期各有兩彩色頁贊助的"公益"廣告 (佑生研究基金會)、約6~7頁的產品廣告。





 ○一一年琉璃光雜誌八月刊登了一篇我寫的介紹接地氣康復的書 Earthing,現在有中文翻譯本-接地氣(註)-是作者 Clint Ober 和兩位醫生共同寫的。近年接地氣康復的研究有更深入地認識,赤腳踏地和沙埋療法的醫學根據。地氣能快速的平衡各種生理功能和改變腦波從壓力反應到放鬆反應。有消炎止痛、平衡血糖、降血壓、減肥,對治打鼾、磨牙和免疫功能的毛病。那麼簡單的方法為什麼有那麼多的功效?簡單來說我們地球上的生命不管是人或動物、植物是依賴地球上的頻率演進的,因而一旦與大地絕緣,生命就淍謝,與插在水裏的花一樣,不接地氣的花朵早謝,接地氣的花朵維持新鮮度久一點。。......詳全文

2016年8月26日 星期五

Richard Strauss (1864-1949)

Festive Prelude for large orchestra & organ, Op. 61
Richard Strauss: a composer’s life
Richard Strauss (1864-1949) lived through several musical eras - and shaped them deeply. "Others compose; I make music history," the maestro said at age 80 - with his typical blend of self-confidence and wit.
Richard Strauss
1864 - on June 11, Richard Strauss is born in Munich as the son of horn player Franz Strauss and his wife Josephine.
1881 - In Munich, Hermann Levi conducts the premiere of the D Minor Symphony by 16-year-old Strauss.

1882 - first visit to Bayreuth. Strauss witnesses the world premiere of Richard Wagner‘s "Parsifal." Hermann Levi is the conductor.

1884- First meeting with conductor Hans von Bülow

1885-1886 - At von Bülow’s recommendation, Strauss is named court orchestra director in Meiningen.

1886-1889 - Strauss - along with Hermann Levi and Franz von Fischer - is named third orchestra director at the Munich Court Opera.
1889 - Musical assistant at a performance of "Parsifal" in Bayreuth.

1889-1894 - Court orchestra director in Weimar.
- With the symphonic poem "Don Juan," Strauss achieves his breakthrough as one of Germany's most significant young composers.
1894 - Conducting debut in Bayreuth: Wagner‘s "Tannhäuser." After Hans von Bülow's death, Strauss temporarily takes over as music director of the Berlin Philharmonic's concerts.
- Marriage to soprano Pauline de Ahna.

1896 - Strauss is named principal music director at the Munich Court Opera.
1895-1898 - Premiere of the symphonic poems "Till Eulenspiegel," "Thus Spake Zarathustra" and "Don Quixote" in Cologne and Frankfurt.
1896年11月27日 理查.史特勞斯《查拉圖斯特拉如是說》首演
1898 - Named first royal Prussian court orchestra director at the Berlin Court Opera.
1900 - Meets Austrian poet Hugo von Hofmannsthal in Paris; plans made for a joint effort.
1901 - Made president of the General German Music Association.

1903 - Co-founder of the German Composers' Society, established to represent composers' rights.
1904 - Trip to the US. Strauss conducts the world premiere of the "Symphonia domestica" in New York's Carnegie Hall.
1905 - Premiere of "Salome" at the Dresden Court Opera, now the Semper Opera. Critics are appalled. About his court orchestra director, Emperor Wilhelm II. fumes, "I've nourished a beautiful snake at my breast!" Gustav Mahler enthuses: "An utterly ingenious, very strong work."

Starting in 1906 - First collaboration with librettist Hugo Hofmannsthal; several operas ensue in the following years.
1908 - General music director in Berlin and director of the court orchestra.
1909 - January 25: premiere of the tragedy "Elektra" in Dresden.

1911 - January 26: premiere of the comedy "Der Rosenkavalier" in Dresden. Ernst von Schuch, who conducted the performance, reports: "An unprecedented outburst of ovations in the theater. Probably the most beautiful thing ever written."

1915 - Premiere of Strauss' symphonic poem "An Alpine Symphony" in Berlin: "A kitschy post card in notes," is the verdict of some, while others call it "an Alpine tapestry in sound."
- Co-founder of the "Society for Musical Performance Rights" (now known as GEMA).

1917 - Strauss, Hofmannsthal and Max Reinhardt co-initiate the Salzburg Festival.
1919 - Along with conductor Franz Schalk, Strauss is named director of the Vienna State Opera.
1924 - Strauss resigns from the Vienna Opera and lives as a freelance composer and conductor in Vienna and Garmisch-Partenkirchen.

1929 - The death of his partner Hugo von Hofmannsthal upsets Strauss deeply. He begins to look for a new librettist.
1931 - First meeting with Jewish-born writer Stefan Zweig.

1933 - Cooperation with the National Socialists: Strauss is named president of the Reich Music Chamber.
1935 - "Die schweigsame Frau" premieres in Dresden. Strauss' support of librettist Stefan Zweig causes friction with the regime. The opera is banned in Germany. Strauss is forced to step down as president of the Reich Music Chamber.
1936 - At the opening of the Olympic Games in Berlin, Strauss conducts his "Olympic Hymn," commissioned by the International Olympic Committee in Lausanne in 1932.
1939-1945 - Work mostly as a conductor during the Second World War in Vienna and elsewhere.
1945 - The composer witnesses the end of the war in Garmisch-Partenkirchen. In "mourning over Munich," he writes his "Metamorphoses" for 23 solo strings, calling it “a reflection of my entire life."
- Strauss' mansion in Garmisch-Partenkirchen is occupied by American troops. Strauss moves to Switzerland to avoid being named a Nazi collaborator by the American war commission.
1948 - In June, the de-Nazification trial in Garmisch-Partenkirchen is adjourned: Strauss is classified as "not guilty."
- "Four Last Songs" composed and first performed post-mortem in London by soprano Kirsten Flagstad.
1949 - Return to Garmisch-Partenkirchen; on September 8 Richard Strauss dies, at age 85.

Richard Strauss and musical seduction

The composer, conductor, professional and maestro of self-promotion was born 150 years ago. But one shadow hangs over Richard Strauss: his ambivalent attitude to the Nazi regime.
Richard Strauss
The trumpet melody with its slow build and increasing force that accompanies the opening of Stanley Kubrick's "2001: A Space Odyssey" is a classic. Kubrik used the sensual and metaphysical power of the composition - originally scored by Richard Strauss as a sunrise in his rendition of Nietzsche's "Thus Spake Zarathustra" - as a backdrop to the gradual rise of the sun in his extra-terrestrial world.
Walter Werbeck, who has written a Richard Strauss handbook to mark this anniversary year, talks in terms of the composer's "sensual effects" and "orchestral brilliance," which he combines with drive and energy. "Music that appears to evoke a new era of music, and which in terms of orchestral and aural technique outdid everything - even by Wagner - heard theretofore."
Richard Strauss was born on June 11, 1864, and to mark the passing of 150 years, his operas, orchestral works and lieder are gracing stages up and down the country. His richly instrumented symphonic poems, songs, chamber music, and operas such as "Arabella," "Salome," "Elektra" and "The Woman without a Shadow" are known and loved all over the world.
Public relations genius
Richard Strauss
The young composer
Strauss had an unerring sense of what would help him and his music to success, and according Daniel Ender, whose book "Meister der Inszenierungen" (Master of Staging) was published this year, he was a man of considerable marketing talent.
"He ensured that he made it into the public eye," Ender told DW. "And he did it by establishing a network of journalist friends who painted a positive picture of him as a modest man who continued to churn out new works. They then went on to depict the details of these works, which made the public curious." His planned use of exotic musical instruments such as the wind machine in his "Alpine Symphony" was announced in the press. "He always had his fingers in the mix," Ender said.
Playbill for the premiere of Salome, 1905
The opera "Salome" was probably the most significant among his calculated scandals and successes. Its captivating, unsettling eroticism made it the stage event of 1905 and 1906. Although the seduction scene, the "Dance of the Seven Veils," led to its erstwhile prohibition, it remained a hit across Europe.
Werbeck says it was thoroughly in keeping for Strauss to combine "orchestral brilliance and a polished tone technique with a sensationalist plot." He describes the composer's decision to cast the biblical figure of Salome as a contemporary femme fatal "very modern and very attractive."
In other operas, such as "The Rosenkavalier," Strauss brought to the stage a world which Werbeck says "didn’t really exist any more by the time the piece premiered in 1911. Yet by looking at it through a nostalgic prism, he managed to make it seem intact."
A helping hand
In his capacity as a conductor, Strauss actively supported other composers. He was an energetic player on the cultural-political scene and an advocate of artists' rights. In order to improve the social status of composers, he pushed for the formulation of a new copyright law. As such, Werbeck told DW, the composer welcomed the 1933 political rise of Adolf Hitler - a Wagner lover and a self-professed artist. Strauss hoped the new leader would place greater importance on the arts, and on music in particular.
Richard Strauss as an old man at his home in Garmisch-Partenkirchen
At home in Garmisch-Partenkirchen
Strauss was made president of the Reichsmusikkammer, the official state music bureau for the promotion of what the regime deemed to be good German music. He did not last long in that office however, which Ender attributes in part to the fact that after his success with the overhaul of copyright law, he was unable to implement further reform plans.
What's more, Strauss clashed with the regime in matters of taste and on questions of culture. "Strauss placed massive importance on being a cultivated human being, and was disappointed by the Nazis," Ender said. Although no longer Reichsmusikkammerpresident, Strauss did come to an understanding with the regime in the years to follow - in part to protect his Jewish daughter-in-law and grandchildren.
Table in a bookstore filled with books on Richard Strauss
No dearth of Strauss biographies this year
"From what we can tell, he was not a Nazi by conviction, and it is important to be clear on that point," Ender said, adding that what was important for him during the Hitler era was that his work be played. "His opportunistic approach worked well for the Nazis."
The here and now
Despite the ambivalence in his behavior, Strauss was always convinced that he was the last great composer of Western music tradition. His strong sense of ego bears hints of hubris, and his rigorous rejection of atonal and twelve-tone music brought him considerable criticism and contempt from 20th century composers and music theorists.
But he stuck to his own style, and continued in the late Romantic tradition decades after it had been declared history. His operas and instrumental pieces have survived the critics and the test of time, and they continue to touch and seduce music lovers a century later.

This coming week we'll be celebrating the 150th anniversary of Richard Strauss' birth. Take a deep dive into Strauss with this hour-long special that explores his dedication to his art, as reflected in his grand orchestral works and his unforgettable operas.
Richard Strauss was a hard man to pin down. As an artist, he was never tied to a single style. He embraced many musical forms during his lifetime. There was only one guiding principle: his belief that music is a holy art.

Behind Richard Strauss's Murky Relationship with the Nazis

Thursday, June 05, 2014

00:00 / 00:00
June 11 is the 150th anniversary of Richard Strauss's birth—an occasion to celebrate and also to raise questions about the composer and his actions during the Nazi era.
In 1933, Strauss accepted a high-profile job from the Nazis, when propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels named him president of the Reichsmusikkammer, the State Music Bureau. Strauss wrote pieces for the Nazis including "Das Bächlein," a song dedicated to Goebbels. And he even wrote at least one letter pledging his loyalty to Hitler.
But Strauss's defenders note that he eventually lost the Nazi post for insisting that Stefan Zweig – the Jewish librettist of his comic opera Die Schweigsame Frau – should appear in the program at the premiere in Dresden, in 1935. And Strauss may have helped save several Jewish lives later in the war. He emerged from his postwar de-Nazification hearing with no official taint.
So was Strauss a hero, a bad actor, or something else? In this week's episode, we’re joined by two Strauss experts to sort through these questions:
  • Erik Levi, author of Mozart and the Nazis and Music in the Third Reich, and a professor of music at Royal Holloway, University of London.
  • Bryan Gilliam, a professor of humanities at Duke University and author of several books on Strauss including Rounding Wagner's Mountain: Richard Strauss and Modern German Opera.

Segment Highlights

On Strauss's relationship to the Nazis
Levi: Initially he was an enthusiastic advocate [of the Nazis]. Remember that we were experiencing in the 1920s a period of tremendous economic fluctuation and a lot of composers on the bread line. What Strauss wanted to do was bring stability to the composing profession, and this was what was promised to him.
Gilliam: I wouldn't say he was pro-Nazi ideology; he was pro-Richard Strauss ideology. He was an opportunist. I don't think he was excited ever about any government. He'd be excited over a government that gave him opportunities for work and commissions and the like. His ideology was Richard Strauss. There's an exception here: his son, Franz, was enthusiastic...

The Music That Strauss Composed for the Nazis
Levi on the Olympic Hymn of 1936: He didn't share much enthusiasm for the idea of writing something for the sporting event. But he was keen to promote himself and a big event like the Berlin Olympic games was an event where he could occupy center stage. It's a piece of jobbery really.
Gilliam: The Olympic Hymn poem was by a half-Jewish poet. He sat next to Hitler at the ceremony.

On the Moral Implications of the Music Strauss wrote under the Nazi regime
Levi: We have to divorce the music from the man. Some past composers in history have been terribly unpleasant people with unpleasant views. It is a thicket. We need to mention a piece like Metamorphosen, written at the end of the war, where you really sense the agony and the grief for the destruction of Germany. The destruction of Germany was wrought by Hitler and his gang, and this music really speaks to the heart that few other works of the 20th century do.
Gilliam: I don't find anything heroic about Strauss, but as a musician, I am absolutely mesmerized by one of the most brilliant artistic individuals of the 20th century.
Listen to the segment above and leave a comment below: Should Strauss have spoken out more forcefully against the Nazis? Do you find his Nazi-era works problematic?

 . Richard Strauss: Metamorphosen
Composed in 1945, Strauss’s Metamorphosen, a work for 23 solo strings, contains Strauss's most sustained outpouring of tragic emotion. The work was written as a statement of mourning for Germany's destruction during the war, in particular the bombing of the Munich Opera House and the Goethehaus. According to Michael Kennedy's biography Richard Strauss: Man, Musician, Enigma (1999), one hostile early critic interpreted the composition as mourning Hitler and the Nazi regime. But Strauss had written the words "In Memoriam" over a quotation from Beethoven's Eroica Symphony as a way to symbolize the toll of war on the German culture and aesthetic in general. As he wrote in his diary:
    "The most terrible period of human history (is at) an end, the twelve year reign of bestiality, ignorance and anti-culture under the greatest criminals, during which Germany's 2000 years of cultural evolution met its doom."

2014;the 150th birthday of Richard Strauss.
Richard Strauss: Wilhelm, Kurt

Richard Strauss

Wilhelm, Kurt

Published by Thames & Hudson, 1989
 Richard Strauss。這本書Richard Strauss: An Intimate Portrait,在圖片等方面更好。


Richard Strauss: An Intimate Portrait

Front Cover
Thames and Hudson, 1989 - Biography & Autobiography - 312 pages
Richard Strauss (1864-1949) always claimed that his music was a self-portrait, that he depicted himself, his nature, and his world in musical notes. From the charming autobiographical opera Intermezzo, based on a domestic misunderstanding, to the self-confident tone poem Ein Heldenleben, the composer's works relate to his personal experience as closely as those of any

nineteenth-century Romantic. For the huge audience that enjoys the music of Strauss, Kurt Wilhelm's book has proved to be a cornucopia of information.
Many of the numerous illustration -- taken from the private archive of the Strauss family -- have never been published previously, and all are of immense historical interest. Skillfully woven around them is a detailed and revealing text, rich in anecdotes, quotations, and personal reminiscences by members of the Strauss family and contemporaries. The result is an intimate investigation of the private life, opinions, background, and works of Strauss that comes as close to the man as one is likely to get.