2011年10月31日 星期一

Ambrose Bierce: The Devil’s Dictionary, Tales, and Memoirs ($35),


Ambrose Bierce: The Man and His Demons

The definition of “ghost, n” in Ambrose Bierce’s puckish “Devil’s Dictionary” is “the outward and visible sign of an inward fear,” and although Bierce was not an entirely reliable lexicographer, his authority on this subject is beyond question. He knew more than any man should about both inward fears and their outward and visible signs. And he was at least arguably the most powerful American writer of horror fiction between Poe and Lovecraft. (Henry James’s supernatural tales are in a class by themselves.) In his career Bierce wrote more than 40 spooky stories, most of them about ghosts, along with a fair number of short narratives — some true, some fanciful — about the horrors of war. All his tales, both the ones about soldiers and the ones about the haunted and the haunting, are steeped in loneliness and dread, which he evokes with the precision of someone familiar with their every nuance. A fat new Library of America volume, Ambrose Bierce: The Devil’s Dictionary, Tales, and Memoirs ($35), collects the best of his work, and almost every page has something to give you the chills, though not always, perhaps, in the way the author intended.

Illustration by Jon McNaught

Bierce enlisted in the Union Army in 1861, a week after the Civil War began. He was not quite 19 years old, and wound up serving for four years, during which he saw action at the notably bloody battles of Shiloh and Chickamauga. The stories he wrote about the conflict form the larger, and more interesting, part of his first collection, “Tales of Soldiers and Civilians,” which was published in 1892. (It was later retitled “In the Midst of Life” and somewhat rearranged for his “Collected Works” in 1909; that’s the text that S. T. Joshi, who edited this volume for the Library of America, uses here.)

The experience of battle clearly had a profound impression on Bierce; he continued writing about it for the rest of his life. But the way he wrote about war was, characteristically, peculiar. In story after story, he begins with minutely detailed descriptions of the hostile landscapes his soldiers — often sentries or scouts — find themselves in: terrain that must be attended to closely, and with sleepless vigilance, for signs of an enemy’s movements. Each of these tales is, in its first couple of pages, marvelous; Bierce is a master of apprehension, always alert to threat. It’s as if every charged moment of his military service were still etched in his memory, persisting as only the most disturbing sensations can. Fear is indelible.

But by the end of these stories, Bierce often seems to have surrendered this valuable territory — his home ground, ­really — to some other force, an imp of verbal facility that always manages to get the drop on him, no matter how diligently he keeps his watch. Many of these tales end with an O. Henry-like twist, a little flourish of (at best) dramatic irony or (at worst) wild coincidence, which the writer delivers with the practiced flair of a stage illusionist finishing his trick. Bierce was good at literary sleight of hand. His style is dry, precise, elegant, almost dandyish. He turns a phrase beautifully, and knows it. His stories were intended to be read one at a time, in a newspaper or a magazine, and if you came upon one unsuspecting, the deft surprise he springs at the end might appear miraculous. In a collection, though, the magic tends to wear off: you start anticipating the clever reversals, and an expected surprise isn’t a surprise at all.

It’s no wonder that the best known of Bierce’s Civil War tales, “An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge,” is a kind of ghost story. The hero, a Confederate civilian about to be hanged for attempting to sabotage the bridge, apparently escapes his fate and makes his way home to his family, but the final, curt paragraph reveals that his deliverance, which Bierce has so meticulously and so movingly described, is no more than a dying man’s fantasy. This is the most melancholy of Bierce’s rabbit-out-of-the-hat endings, and it works better than the others because of the sense of the uncanny that it casts, retrospectively, over the tall tale we’ve just read: we had thought we were still in this world, but we were elsewhere, in a no man’s land between the natural and the supernatural. In “An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge,” this strange country feels like an appropriate, and deserved, refuge from the grim facts of war. Elsewhere, Bierce’s trick endings seem less fully earned. In the more realistic war stories, his ingenuity often feels like a strategic retreat from the field of battle, a last-minute flight from the genuine terrors of the conflict.

In his ghost stories, though, these limitations turn to virtues. If there’s a genre Bierce was born to, it’s horror. He collected his supernatural tales under the title “Can Such Things Be?” — a question whose tone is cunningly ambiguous, hovering between cool skepticism and slack-jawed amazement. And that is exactly the tone of the stories themselves. Lovecraft called Bierce’s horror fiction “grim and savage,” but it isn’t, really. The style of his ghost stories is quiet, detached, oddly companionable. (That is to say, it couldn’t be more different from Lovecraft’s.) He writes as a suave raconteur of the unearthly, with just enough of the ironic in his voice to maintain his distance from appalling events while drawing his readers closer and closer to the inexplicable mysteries at their heart. The opening sentence of “One Summer Night” is typical: “The fact that Henry Armstrong was buried did not seem to him to prove that he was dead: he had always been a hard man to convince.” Poe and, later, Lovecraft, did horror in ominous, deranging close-ups; Bierce preferred the long and the medium shot, in which the nature of the terrible thing is slightly less distinct, a little harder to make out, and the more awful for it.

Bierce’s ghost stories are all, in a sense, campfire tales, yarns spun in the kind of darkness and solitude where every sound is menacing and, as he writes in “The Death of Halpin Frayser,” “all the finer emotions were swallowed up in fear.” Because he was a man of the West — he lived most of his life in San Francisco — there are actual campfires in some of these stories, in which malevolent specters visit lone prospectors and haunt remote mining camps. But even when the untoward phenomena take place in the city or in another part of the country (as in the brilliant “Moonlit Road,” which is set in Tennessee) or even far out to sea (as in “A Psychological Shipwreck”), the sensation evoked is the same: you feel vaguely rattled, jumpy as a sentry on watch, in the middle of nowhere and the middle of the night.

And Bierce’s penchant for turning the narrative screw finds its rightful home in horror. A ghost story should snap shut firmly, a door shut by an unseen hand: the otherworldly needs that artificial closure, or everything gets swallowed up in fear. Reading this volume, it’s hard to avoid the suspicion that Bierce himself spent a good deal of his life on the run from that sort of all-enveloping terror — which sometimes required him to run toward it. He lived his last days, as far as anyone knows, in Mexico, where he went in 1913, at the age of 71, to observe and perhaps participate in Pancho Villa’s revolution. (His time there has been movingly imagined by Carlos Fuentes in the 1985 novel “The Old Gringo.”) There was war in Bierce’s youth and war at his end, and writing in between. He vanished in Mexico; no one knows where he’s buried. Alone as ever, and free of fear at last. No need to turn phrases in the grave.









さ の続き

2011年10月30日 星期日

柳田聖山與《 胡適禪學案》

柳田聖山與《 胡適禪學案》


胡適博士肖像(入矢義高 藏)
回憶胡適之先生(入矢義高 )
胡適博士與中國初期禪宗史之研究(日文 柳田聖山/ 漢譯 李迺揚 )
胡適博士禪學年譜( 柳田聖山)


《壇經》考之一: 跋《曹溪大師別傳》(胡適 1930)
壇經考之二(記北宋本的《六祖壇經》)(胡適 1934)
荷澤大師神會傳(胡適 1930)
楞伽師資記》序 (胡適 1931)

禪學古史考 (胡適 1928)

神會和尚語錄的第三個敦煌寫本 南陽和尚問答雜徵義: 劉澄及解說( 神會和尚遺集 )增訂版

胡適談中國禪學的發展 (上) 一二講/
胡適中國禪學的發展 (下) 三、四講

Essay in Zen Buddhism by Daisetz Suzuki (First Series), From the Times Literary Supplement, Thursday, August 25th, 1927

Development of Zen Buddhism in China, From the Chinese Social and Political Science Review, Vol. XV, No. 4, January 1932, Peiping

Ch'an (Zen) Buddhism in China , its History and Method, from the Philosophy East and West, Vol. III, No. 1, April 1953, University of Hawaii Press
禪宗在中國:它的歷史和方法 (胡適)

An Appeal for a Systematic Search in Japan for Long-Hidden T'ang Dynasty Source-Materials of the Early History of Zen Buddhism, from Buddhism and Culture, Edited by Susumu Yamaguchi, delegate the Planning Committee for the Commemoration of Dr. Suzuki's Ninetieth Birthday, Kyoto, 1960
柳田聖山與《 胡適禪學案》



Job 共 42 章


第二章 11-13



  • 約伯的三位朋友,特曼人厄里法次、叔亞人彼耳達得、納阿瑪人左法爾,聽說他遭遇了災禍,就各從本地起程,來到一起,去慰問他、勸勉他,
  • 他們從遠處舉目一望,已認不得他,就放聲大哭,撕破了自己的外衣,把灰揚起,落在自己頭上。
  • 他們於是同他在灰土中,坐了七天七夜,因見他受苦太大,沒有人敢向他說一句話。
  • 2011年10月29日 星期六


    《夢碧簃石言》分為六卷,共八十四則,略仿葉昌熾,語石》框架,分類講述,多為當時新出碑刻與新資料。卷一碑刻類十九則,以時代為序講述漢代至明代碑刻十九 鐘;卷二墓志類十五則,以時代為序講述漢代至宋代墓志十五種;卷三造像法帖類八則,講述魏、梁、周造像與《蘭亭》、《汝帖》等;卷四區域類十一則,分别介 紹十一處碑志、造像集中地和收藏地;卷五金石家類十則,分别介紹十位當時富收藏、精考據的金石學家;卷六金石書類二十一則,分别介紹較有影響的金石學著 作。其體例系統而有條理,文字也雅緻而有趣味,廣搜佚聞,别開生面,間有考訂,發潛闡幽,堪稱“《語石》之外,又樹一幟”。


    作者 / 錢文忠
    出版社 / 上海書店出版社 2007 頁34 提到 胡適日記 (原文未說日期) 指出鋼和泰早就注意佛本行經

    《天竺與佛陀》選摘- “三寸丁谷樹皮”臆解





    近 得讀北京大學考古學系林梅村教授《盧文文獻:中國藏品(1897—1993)》[Kharos·t·hι Bibliography: The Collection from China(1897~1993), Central Asiatic Journal, 40(1996) 2, pp.188~220],文中有云(p.200),據敦煌本唐代地理寫卷,Toyuk(今吐魯番吐峪溝)作“丁谷”,其地有佛教洞窟寺“丁谷寺。” (可參I.Gershevitch教授《大夏語銘文與寫本》(Bactrian Inscrīptions and Manuscrīpts),載《印度日耳曼語及普通語言學雜誌》(Zeitschrift für Indogermanistik und allgemeine Sprachwissenschaft, 72, Berlin, 1967, pp.59~78)。

    Gershevitch教授於上揭論文中,更涉及9世紀和闐文地理寫卷一份,其中稱Toyuk為ttiyka。 J.Hamilton教授撰有《論鋼和泰寫卷之作者》(Autour du manuscrīpt StalHolstein, TP, 46, 1958),考論漢語“丁谷”及和闐文“ttiyka”極有來自吐火羅語A “trun·k”或吐火羅語B “tron·k”之可能,而以trun·k與tron·k之原始型當系trunqos,其語義正是“洞、窟”(cave, grotto )。當可視同於拉丁語之truncus或antrum。

    以印歐比較語言學角度觀之,上列諸說甚辯。如是,則“丁谷”二字或系外族語詞之漢語譯音。 《西州圖經》之“丁谷窟”,“丁谷”者譯音,“窟”者表義,正與古之“沐猴”(參張永言教授《語源探索三例》,收入氏著《語文學論集》[增補本],語文出版社1999年版,頁262~284),今之“啤酒”、“沙發椅”、“摩托車”等等同例。譯者固極具巧思也。

    若是,則“三寸丁谷樹皮”云云,可得一新解。以武大郎短矮醜陋,复無識見,猶如洞窟中之樹,為陽光雨露所不及,不得發舒,無由參天,隻及“三寸”。 “皮”者云雲,復言武大郎之醜、之弱。

    “丁谷”一詞,至晚於唐初已混入漢語,久而久之,世人於其外來詞身份已不復省憶。 《水滸傳》之作者實不解此,遂於第二十五回“王婆計啜西門慶,淫婦藥鴆武大郎”中,敘及武大郎被西門慶“踢中心窩裡”後,作詩曰“三寸丁兒沒幹才”,徑將“丁谷”腰斬,而棄“谷樹皮”於不顧矣。

    此外尚有可論者,案“洞窟”與上揭吐火羅語trun·k、 tron​​·k,於音於義,似均無不洽。若幸有精通對音勘同之博雅君子,證成“洞窟”一如“丁谷”,亦係外來語詞,以其譯音譯義圓融無間,渾然天成,則譯法之高妙,又遠出“丁谷”、“丁谷窟”之上矣。

    Best-Seller List to Include e-Books

    WSJ Retools Best-Seller List to Include e-Books

    The paper is the latest to address the reality of increased digital sales.


    The Wall Street Journal is revamping its bestseller list by letting the new kids into the club: e-book. Yes, that means your very own self-published zombie romance historical fiction e-opus is now eligible to make the list. Watch out, Nicholas Sparks.

    The Associated Press reports that Nielsen, who has provided the Journal with lists based on physical sales of books since 2009, will as of this weekend provide four new bestseller lists: e-books, paperback, and hardcover combined in fiction and nonfiction; and e-books only in fiction and nonfiction.

    The New York Times and USA Today already include e-books in their bestseller lists. Like the Times, the Journal and Nielsen point to increasing the accuracy of their lists as the reason for the change. "These new charts uniquely reflect what people are really buying and reading and will most definitely advance the industry's understanding of e-book best sellers," Nielsen Bookscan VP Jonathan Stolper said in a statement. The new lists won’t include the actual number of units sold, just rankings.

    The e-book lists will come from sales through Amazon.com, Barnes & Noble, Apple and Google, among others. In addition to conventionally published books aimed at an adult audience, the lists can include titles from any of the following categories: self-published, children's and perennials, (older works that continue to do sell well).

    2011年10月27日 星期四

    網頁成雜誌: Style.com/Print

    Front Row

    Finally, the Web at Hand

    NEXT week, the first issue of a glossy magazine from the editors of Style.com, with the puzzling name of Style.com/Print, will hit newsstands. The cover shows a close-up of Lindsey Wixson, the model from Kansas with the strawberry-shaped smoocher, framed by a thick lipstick-red border. There are no teasers about what’s inside, just a quote from Ms. Wixson that suggests she will never be known as the Joan Didion of her trade.

    The cover of the first issue of Style.com/Print.

    Metro Twitter Logo.

    Connect With Us on Twitter

    Follow @NYTimesfashion for fashion, beauty and lifestyle news and headlines.

    Ever since it was announced this spring that Style.com, the fashion news site started by Condé Nast in 2000, was developing a print version, people have wondered, what exactly is this thing? Can’t I just read it on Twitter? Well, aside from the novelty factor of its origins, it is a surprisingly effective product, one that reads with a swiftness that is not unlike the experience of clicking through multiple screens at a time. The first 100 pages can be read in five minutes.

    “We wanted to give the reader a sense of what it is like to go through the journey of the shows, from New York to London to Milan to Paris,” said Dirk Standen, the editor of Style.com. The idea was basically to create a collectible distillation of what happened during the spring 2012 runway season, which ended only three weeks ago. It will cost $14.99 on newsstands, or $4.99 plus shipping if ordered online before Monday.

    Much of the content is similar to what’s typically found online: a collection of Twitter messages, Tommy Ton street-style photos, top-10 lists of most-viewed shows (Chanel was No. 1 with 3.5 million page views), the favorites of its editors (Balenciaga came in first), the most ubiquitous party people, the best shoes and bags and models, and the best-dressed fashionista based on reader votes (Giovanna Battaglia pulled off a major upset). Ms. Wixson also features prominently in a photo essay by Theo Wenner. And, should you actually wish to read something, and do not need glasses to consume very small font sizes, there are articles about Proenza Schouler, Donatella Versace and a Q-and-A with Azzedine Alaïa.

    Perhaps the weirdest thing about the magazine is that all the ads show fall clothes, while the editorial focus is on spring. But then, as Mr. Standen would attest, not everything translates so easily into print.

    “I did at one point think we should have a tag on the cover that said ‘Click here for more,’ ” he said. “But that was shot down pretty quickly.”

    Hula Girls /Iwaki/Akihabara

    photoThe Fukushima Hula Girls dance along the green carpet at the Tokyo International Film Festival opening ceremony on Oct. 22. (The Asahi Shimbun)

    Akihabara to host 'Hula Girls Koshien'



    PhotoA former "Hula Girl," Junko Azuma (front), gives high school girls pointers on how to dance at the Akiba Square building in Tokyo's Chiyoda Ward. (Ippei Nakata)PhotoHigh school hula dancers practice (Ippei Nakata)

    High school girls from around Japan will compete at the first Hula Girls Koshien contest at the Akiba Square building in front of Tokyo's JR Akihabara Station on Sept. 4.

    The competition was supposed to be hosted by Iwaki, Fukushima Prefecture, where the 2006 Japanese movie "Hula Girls" was set, on March 23 but was postponed because of the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Girls from 13 high schools will compete. A joint practice session to help participants improve their skills and get to know each other was held on Aug. 22 at the Akihabara venue, with one of the original Hula Girls, Junko Azuma, providing instruction.

    Eleven students from Tokyo's Asakusa Senior High School in Tokyo, Hanyu Daiichi Senior High School in Saitama Prefecture, and the Saitama Prefectural High School of the Arts attended the session.

    Azuma, 44, was a former member of the hula dancers at the Joban Hawaiian Center resort, the forerunner of the Spa Resort Hawaiians, who were known as the "Hula Girls."

    "Take a strong step," she told the students, "Stretch your leg slowly."

    Erika Hirano, 16, a first-year student at the Asakusa Senior High School, said: "I want to give an energetic performance and make the audience want to dance along."

    Rio Yoshida, 18, from Hanyu Daiichi Senior High School, said: "I want to enliven the mood at the event because the idea is to encourage reconstruction (following the earthquake). We practiced really hard, and we want to win the contest."

    The movie "Hula Girls" is based on the true story of the creation of the Joban Hawaiian Center resort.

    "Iwaki, whose main industry was coal mining, began to die in the 10 years after 1965," Kenichi Yoshida, the 39-year-old head of the competition's organizing committee said. "We managed to overcome the crisis by establishing the Hawaiian Center offering hula dance shows."

    The city now finds itself in a new crisis because of the accident at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant, immediately to its north.

    "Like the Hula Girls who built the foundation for the revival of Iwaki, we expect the students who dance hula to be 'the symbol of reconstruction,'" Yoshida said.

    The organizing committee was forced to move the event in the wake of the March 11 disaster, and decided on Tokyo because members wanted to get as much publicity as possible for the difficulties of Iwaki.

    The event, which takes the "Koshien" part of its name from the national high school baseball tournament, will open at 12:30 p.m. on Sept. 4. The competition itself will start at 1 p.m. Admission is free. There are 350 seats as well as standing room.

    A special event will also be held on Sept. 3 at the venue, with locally grown vegetables and other items from the Iwaki area on sale.

    For more information, visit (http://www.hula-girls.net/index.html).

    Iwaki 市: Memories, Washed Away/Iwaki once again finds hope through its "Hula Girls"

    Hula Girls (International: English title) 扶桑花女孩 2007 在台大看過
    The Fair Trade Commission on Thursday searched offices of Yamada Denki
    Co., the nation's largest chain of large-scale appliance and
    electronics retailers, on suspicion that it demanded suppliers to
    provide workers, in violation of the Antimonopoly Law.
    The FTC believes the Maebashi-based company illegally pressured
    manufacturers and other suppliers to provide staff to work as de facto
    sales clerks in its stores. The FTC searched for evidence in the
    chain's head office in the capital of Gunma Prefecture and some


    VOX POPULI: Iwaki once again finds hope through its "Hula Girls"

    Vox Populi, Vox Dei is a daily column that runs on Page 1 of the vernacular Asahi Shimbun.


    The 2006 Japanese movie "Hula Girls" is set in a decaying coal mining town in Iwaki, Fukushima Prefecture, in the 1960s. Based on the real-life Joban Hawaiian Center resort that opened in Iwaki in 1966, the town is planning to build a mock-Hawaiian resort, and a young woman (Yu Aoi) is interested in responding to a recruitment ad for hula dancers. She tells her mother (Junko Fuji) so during supper, but the mother admonishes her sternly: "Forget it. Hawaii in these boonies here in the northeast? Ain't happening."

    But the struggling town sees its only hope of survival in the Joban Hawaiian Center, which will use the region's natural hot springs. Miners' daughters get busy practicing hula dancing, but many locals remain hostile to this new project because it only suggests the imminent closure of the coal mines.

    A hula dance instructor arrives from Tokyo and makes an impassioned appeal: "You've got to understand that these girls are determined to save the community. That's why they've become such accomplished dancers."

    The ardor of the project's supporters gradually turns nonbelievers into believers, and this "Hawaii of the Tohoku Region" blossomed into a successful venture. It has since been renamed Spa Resort Hawaiians, and attracts about 1.5 million visitors a year.

    Then the March 11 quake and tsunami struck, followed by the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant disaster 50 kilometers away. Spa Resort Hawaiians has been temporary shut down, and this is said to represent a worse crisis for the locals than when the coal mines closed.

    About 30 hula girls, now out of work, will shortly begin performing in the Tokyo area and some parts of the Tohoku region, and later tour the nation. The last nationwide tour was just before the opening of the Joban Hawaiian Center, and it was to promote the new facility. The current tour will enable the dancers and disaster survivors to renew their resolve to revive their communities.

    What transformed Iwaki's coal-sludge heaps into a tourist resort was the miners' sense of impending doom for their families and communities because of the moribund coal industry. Today, unfounded rumors of radioactive fallout are their bane. These people were made to pay--and are still being made to pay--for the nation's energy policy. My heart goes out to them.

    Getting over the quake and tsunami damage will require far greater energy than developing a coal production center. The people of Iwaki will probably derive their energy from their love of family and community, but outsiders could also provide invaluable help, as did the hula dance instructor from Tokyo in the movie. And the greatest source of energy must lie in the town's young people, who must see their own future overlapping the nation's future. They will be like those hula girls who danced to revive their dying town.

    --The Asahi Shimbun, April 9

    * * *

    2011/3/11 日本的三重大災難中的重災區
    起碼 Iwaki 市我造訪過 (約1992)


    我查Wikipedia 才知道它原先的漢字 不過它們可能是錯誤的 "岩樹" 是另一說法
    The forms いわき, 石城, 岩城, and 磐城 are all ways of writing "Iwaki," which means "rocky castle". Today, いわき is the most common written form. Iwaki, Fukushima - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - [ 翻譯此頁 ]Iwaki (いわき市, Iwaki-shi) is a city located in the southern part of the Hamadōri coastal region of Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. ...

    Op-Ed Contributor

    Memories, Washed Away

    Iwaki 市: Memories, Washed Away/Iwaki once again fi...

    The economy in haiku



    The economy in haiku

    Oct 26th 2011, 14:52 by R.A. | WASHINGTON

    THE KAUFFMAN FOUNDATION conducts a quarterly survey of economics bloggers (you can see the third quarter results here). It tends to focus on current economic conditions and policy questions, but the fourth quarter questionnaire contained something a little different: a challenge to capture the state of the economy in haiku. The results are sublime. Here, for instance, is the contribution from Interfluidity's Steve Waldman:

    This is not so hard.
    Helicopter money please.
    Wired straight to households.

    Below the jump, you can read all of the submitted haiku. After having a look, cast a vote for the best one here. And do note, the full results of the Kaufmann survey will be released next week (to which we'll link, no doubt).

    Tax the Rich and Now
    Borrow to Invest in Stuff
    Bring Back the New Deal
    - Daniel Gross

    Boost U.S. Demand
    Need More Money and Tax Cuts
    Hands off the long run
    -Karl Smith

    Climate change question
    Cap-and-trade or carbon tax
    Either efficient
    -John Whitehead

    Double dip at bay
    Despite moronic Congress
    Europe sinks us all
    -Ryan Avent

    Econ guys, gentle souls
    Think policies guide markets
    Jail time is better
    -Robert Cringely

    Economy Grows Big
    Increase in Stock Market
    My Children Get Rich
    -James Altucher

    Economy sucks?
    New policies shake things up!
    Causing more suckage.
    -Glen Whitman

    Employment down, output up
    Doing more with less
    Until everything is done by no one
    -Wade Roush

    Intermodal loadings increase
    Trade conflict looms without cease
    Occupy Wall Street
    -Stephen Karlson

    jobs and Jobs are gone
    need more Jobs to get more jobs
    innovate to grow
    -Arthur Diamond

    Jobs are needed now
    Austerity ill-timed
    Action is required
    -Jeff Miller

    Keynes' America falls
    Growth will emerge with startups
    Hayek wins the day
    -Tim Kane

    many angry folks
    watch political duck soup
    less soup back to work
    -David Zetland

    Monetary stimulus is all that's left
    Do it right or suffer
    Target NGDP to end the quest
    -James Picerno

    More demand is needed
    The Fed is responsible
    Do not look elsewhere
    -Scott Sumner

    More public spending
    Is needed to fill the gap
    Sadly America fails
    -Bill Mitchell

    New Commanding Heights
    Credentials Suffocating
    Let the market work
    -Arnold Kling

    No one has a job
    Except econobloggers
    And they're not paid much
    -Felix Salmon

    Revenge of the Nerds
    ZMP can't outcompete
    Very small shell scripts
    -Eli Dourado

    The goal is simple
    Get Americans to say
    "I, Entrepreneur"
    -Nick Schulz

    The US needs jobs
    Politicians have theirs now
    With which they do little
    -Austin Frakt

    This is not so hard.
    Helicopter money please.
    Wired straight to households.
    -Steve Waldman

    Those kids blame the banks.
    Is Wall Street pre-occupied?
    Next: capital strike.
    -Michael Munger

    Uncertainty rules
    While the economy suffers
    Politics rejoices
    -Pedro Albuquerque

    When Japan fell in 1990s
    They were lectured by the world economists
    Time for Japanese to smile
    -Amol Agrawal

    2011年10月25日 星期二

    中國佛教史概說 (野上俊靜等五人 釋聖嚴 譯)


    • 作者:

      釋聖嚴 譯
    • 出版日期:1972/ 1998年

    本 書原作者係由日本五位執教於各大學的中國佛教史專家,就各自專長範圍,分章執筆,統理成書。以新的史學方法,將中國佛教所歷各個時代的社會背景、地理因 素、文化基礎、政治制度及其與佛教相互關涉的影響得失,作縱橫面的分析和介紹,簡明扼要而客觀。可作為大學教材,並供給一般知識份子的研究參考。

       中國,是以自身的語文,將起源於印度的佛教,傳譯和容受過來。這是藉著來自西方的胡僧,以及漢人之中的佛教徒們,共同協力,長期苦心的結晶,便是漢譯 《大藏經》的成立。出生於中國與日本的各宗祖師們,均將這些漢譯的佛典,信奉為佛陀的親口之言,個別組織成獨特的教義,終於,完成了以「中國之佛教」為基 礎的大乘佛教。
      以此,我們把握了這一東亞佛教的母體,將「中國之佛教」的歷史之開展和演變,介紹出來。各章分由野上俊靜、小川貫 弌、牧田諦亮、野村耀昌、佐藤達玄等五人執筆,然後將草稿集中閱讀,統理成為一書,當然,責任乃由執筆者共同負擔。我們五人,現均於各大學中教授「中國佛 教史」,所以,根據教育經驗的考察,採取最新的研究成果,願其作為大學裡的概說教科書,對於一般的知識分子,則為理解中國佛教史的參考書。
       恰巧,作為本書作者之一的我,奉職於立正大學,前來日本留學的聖嚴法師,目前正在本校大學院,攻讀博士課程,是一位篤學的求法之士,他將本書用現代的中 國語譯了出來,聞將付梓出版。那麼,本書的流佈行將更廣,接觸的讀者也將更多。在將理解作正確的弘佈上說,也是極可欣慰的事,故應譯者之請,作此序文,並 對他的努力,用表深深的謝意。

    2011年10月21日 星期五


    秋月龍珉原著 邱祖明譯. a台北市: 天華 1979 民68

    禪與華嚴是中國的兩偉大發明 鈴木大拙將其傳播到全世界

      (1870~1966)日本臨濟宗學者。擅長英文,以英文撰述之禪書多達數十部,對於東方思想及禪之傳入歐美,貢獻卓越。本名貞太郎。五歲喪父。二十一歲 入東京專門學校(東京早稻田大學之前身)攻讀英文學。其後於鎌倉圓覺寺隨今北洪川學禪。次年,今北洪川示寂,轉就宗演參禪,專志修行,並博覽有關禪與佛 學、西洋哲學等書。其間,陸續從事英譯工作,任雜誌主編達十一年。三十歲峙,繼翻譯「佛陀之福音」後,又完成「大乘起信論」(Aśvaghosha's Discourse on the Awakening of Faith in the Mahāyāna)之英譯。三十五歲,從宗演巡迴講演於美洲東部各地。三十七歲,出版英文本「大乘佛教概論」(Outlines of Mahāyāna Buddhism)。
     其後遊學歐洲,足跡遍歷英、德、法、瑞 士等國。返國後歷任東京帝國大學、大谷大學教授及「禪道」雜誌編輯;另與佐佐木月樵從事真宗教義之英譯工作。四十一歲結婚。昭和八年(1933),六十三 歲以「楞伽經之研究」獲文學博士學位。次年,遊歷朝鮮、中國各地,遍尋佛蹟。後曾數度赴美講學。嘗於大谷大學設立「東方佛教徒協會」,創刊英文雜誌,前後 續刊達二十年之久,又於鎌倉東慶寺設立松家岡文庫。七十九歲,被推薦為日本學士院會員,並受文化勳章。其後,曾出席夏威夷大學主辦之第二、三屆東西哲學家 大會。
     八十五歲,組織西藏大藏經研究會,自任會長,刊行影印北京版西藏大藏經,凡一五一卷(甘珠爾四十五卷、丹珠爾一○五卷、目錄部一卷);並參與 「望月佛教大辭典」之編纂。九十一歲,又刊行北京版西藏大藏經續篇(宗喀巴全書、章嘉全書)十三卷,及西藏大藏經總目錄、索引四卷。九十二歲,改組研究會 為鈴木學術財團。次年,完成「望月佛教大辭典」補遺二卷。其對於佛教學、西藏學、東方思想之研究,貢獻至鉅。昭和四十一年逝世,世壽九十七。畢生著作繁 富,有鈴木大拙選集、鈴木大拙全集行世。〔鈴木大拙的生平與思想(秋月龍窻)〕



    鈴木大拙すずき だいせつ、D.T.Suzuki,1870年10月18日-1966年7月12日),本名貞太郎ていたろう〕,別號也風流居士。日本石川縣金澤市人。


    鈴木 大拙(すずき だいせつ、本名:貞太郎(ていたろう)、英: D. T. Suzuki (Daisetsu Teitaro Suzuki)、1870年11月11日明治3年10月18日) - 1966年(昭和41年)7月12日)は、についての著作を英語で著し、日本の禅文化を海外に広くしらしめた仏教学者文学博士)である。著書約100冊の内23冊が、英文で書かれている。梅原猛曰く、「近代日本最大の仏教者」。1949年に文化勲章日本学士院会員。 




    来歴 [編集]




    1909年に帰国し、円覚寺の正伝庵に住み、学習院に赴任。英語を教えたが、終生交流した教え子に柳宗悦松方三郎等がいる。1911年にベアトリスと結婚。1921年に大谷大学教授に就任して、京都に転居した。同年、同大学内に東方仏教徒協会を設立し、英文雑誌『イースタン・ブディスト』(Eastern Buddhist )を創刊した(現在も同協会より刊行中)。1939年、夫人ベアトリス・レイン死去。大拙に先立つこと27年であった。






    《霊性の自覚》と《即非の論理》 [編集]


    彼の著作群は膨大な量にのぼるが、その多くが《霊性の自覚》や《即非の論理》を巡るものとしてとらえることができる。たとえば『禅論文集1-3』は、における霊性的自覚つまり悟りの具体相と心理的過程をとらえている。『禅思想史研究第一 盤珪禅』は盤珪の不生禅を霊性的自覚としてとらえなおしたものである。『日本的霊性』は日本における《霊性の自覚》の歴史を解明した書である。『臨済の基本思想』は臨済一無位真人のうちに《霊性の自覚》を見出したものである。『浄土系思想論』は浄土思想を《霊性の自覚》の立場から扱ったものである。

    年表 [編集]

    出典・脚注 [編集]

    1. ^ (逸話)大拙が没した際、ニュースを読み上げた宿直明けのアナウンサーが、原稿に禅と書いてあるのをと読み違えて「蝉の研究で有名な鈴木大拙氏が亡くなりました。著書には英文による『蝉と日本文化』…」と、誤って読み上げてしまい進退伺いを出すことになった。が、慰留された、という。(出典:柴田南雄『わが音楽 わが人生』岩波書店1995年、p.279。なお彼は自著の著者紹介で「“”の研究家」と誤植されたこともある。

    主な著書 [編集] 有漢文本以紅字表示 陸續登錄

    • 『鈴木大拙全集 増補新版』 (全40巻、岩波書店、1999年-2003年)
      • 旧版『鈴木大拙全集』(全32巻、1968-71年、復刊1980-83年)
      • 『禅思想史研究』(全4冊、岩波書店、復刊1987年)
    • 『鈴木大拙禅選集』 (全11巻別巻1、春秋社、新装版2001年) 
    • 『日本的霊性』 岩波文庫中公クラシックス橋本峰雄校注)、角川ソフィア文庫(完全版)
    • 『無心ということ』 新版 角川ソフィア文庫
    • 『禅とは何か』 新版 角川ソフィア文庫
    • 『一禅者の思索』 講談社学術文庫
    • 『禅学入門』 (講談社学術文庫、2004年)-英文著作を自ら訳した 
    • 『禅の第一義』(平凡社ライブラリー、2011年)-初期代表作
    • 『東洋的な見方』 (上田閑照編、岩波文庫、1997年)
    • 『宗教の根本疑点について』 (大東出版社、新版2010年) ISBN 4500007393、他6冊が同社刊。
    • 『鈴木大拙の世界 燈影撰書15』 (燈影舎) ISBN 4924520306-随想集

    主な英文著作(訳本) [編集]


    These essays were enormously influential when they came out, making Zen known in the West for the very first time:

    • Essays in Zen Buddhism: First Series (1927), New York: Grove Press.

    鈴木大拙禪論集: 歷史發展 徐進夫譯 台北:志文 1986
    • Essays in Zen Buddhism: First Series (1927), New York: Grove Press.

    本書並有胡適在泰晤士報的書評 他建議鈴木注意敦煌史料 從此兩人結緣 吃過不少次 sukiyaki .

    Shortly after, a second series followed:

    • An Introduction to Zen Buddhism, Kyoto: Eastern Buddhist Soc. 1934. Republished with Foreword by C.G. Jung, London: Rider & Company, 1948.
    • The Training of the Zen Buddhist Monk, Kyoto: Eastern Buddhist Soc. 1934. New York: University Books, 1959.
    • Manual of Zen Buddhism, Kyoto: Eastern Buddhist Soc. 1934. London: Rider & Company, 1950, 1956.A collection of Buddhist sutras, classic texts from the masters, icons & images,including the "Ten Ox-Herding Pictures".

    After WWII, a new interpretation:

    • The Zen Doctrine of No-Mind,London: Rider & Company, 1949. York Beach, Maine: Red Wheel/Weiser 1972, ISBN 0-87728-182-3.
    • Living by Zen. London: Rider & Company, 1949.
    • Mysticism: Christian and Buddhist: The Eastern and Western Way, Macmillan, 1957. "A study of the qualities Meister Eckhart shares with Zen and Shin Buddhism". Includes translation of myokonin Saichi's poems.
    • Zen and Japanese Culture, New York: Pantheon Books, 1959. A classic.
    • Zen Buddhism and Psychoanalysis, Erich Fromm, D. T. Suzuki, and De Martino. Approximately one third of this book is a long discussion by Suzuki that gives a Buddhist analysis of the mind, its levels, and the methodology of extending awareness beyond the merely discursive level of thought. In producing this analysis, Suzuki gives a theoretical explanation for many of the swordsmanship teaching stories in Zen and Japanese Culture that otherwise would seem to involve mental telepathy, extrasensory perception, etc.


    • An anthology of his work until mid-1950s: Zen Buddhism: Selected Writings of D.T. Suzuki, Doubleday, New York: 1956. Edited by William Barrett.
    • Very early work on Western mystic-philosopher.Swedenborg: Buddha of the North, West Chester, Pa: Swedenborg Foundation, 1996. Trans. by Andrew Bernstein of Swedenborugu, 1913.
    • A Miscellany on the Shin Teaching of Buddhism; Kyōto, Shinshū Ōtaniha, 1949.
    • Shin Buddhism; New York, Harper & Row, 1970.
    • Gutoku Shaku Shinran, The Kyōgyōshinshō, The Collection of Passages Expounding the True Teaching, Living, Faith, and Realizing of the Pure Land, translated by Daisetz Teitarō Suzuki (ed. by The Eastern Buddhist Society); Kyōto, Shinshū Ōtaniha, 1973.
    • Collected Writings on Shin Buddhism (ed. by The Eastern Buddhist Society); Kyōto, Shinshū Ōtaniha, 1973.
    • Transcription of talks on Shin Buddhism.Buddha of Infinite Light. Boston: Shambhala Publications, 1998. Edited by Taitetsu Unno.
    • Tribute; anthology of essays by great thinkers.D.T. Suzuki: A Zen Life Remembered. Wheatherhill, 1986. Reprinted by Shambhala Publications.
    • See also the works of Alan Watts, Paul Reps et al.

    [edit] External links

    CD [編集]

    • 『CD版禅者のことば 鈴木大拙講演選集<全6巻>』(アートデイズ
    • 『禅と科学』、『最も東洋的なるもの』、『禅との出会い―私の自叙伝』
    鈴木大拙講演、新潮カセット&CD (新潮社、新版2007年)
    • 『CDブック 大拙 禅を語る-世界を感動させた三つの英語講演』
    アートデイズ、2006年、重松宗育監修・日本語訳) ISBN 4861190665-英語講演

    関連文献 [編集]

    • 『鈴木大拙 人と思想』 久松真一山口益古田紹欽編、岩波書店 1971年、復刊1980年
    • 『回想鈴木大拙』 西谷啓治編、春秋社、1975年
    • 古田紹欽 『鈴木大拙 その人とその思想』 春秋社、1993年
      • 古田編 『鈴木大拙坐談集』(全5巻)、読売新聞社、1971-72年
      • 古田編 『鈴木大拙の人と学問 禅選集・別巻』 春秋社、新装版2001年
    • 上田閑照岡村美穂子編 『鈴木大拙とは誰か』 岩波現代文庫、2002年。※下記(一部)も含む
      • 『大拙の風景 鈴木大拙とは誰か』 <灯影撰書30>灯影舎、1999年、増補新版2008年
      • 『思い出の小箱から 鈴木大拙のこと』 <灯影撰書29>灯影舎、1997年
      • 『相貌と風貌 鈴木大拙写真集』 禅文化研究所、2005年。 岡村美穂子は秘書
    • 志村武 『鈴木大拙随聞記』 日本放送出版協会、1967年。※以下は入門書
    • 秋月龍珉 『鈴木大拙』 講談社学術文庫、2004年。大文字版 
      • 元版 『世界の禅者 鈴木大拙の生涯』 岩波同時代ライブラリー、1992年。
      • 初版 『鈴木大拙の言葉と思想』 講談社現代新書、1967年。
    • 森清 『大拙と幾多郎』 <朝日選書417>朝日新聞社、1991年/増補版.岩波現代文庫、2011年
    • 『禅 鈴木大拙-没後40年-』 北国新聞社編集局編、時鐘舎新書、2006年
    • 大熊玄 『鈴木大拙の言葉』 朝文社、2007年