2016年8月29日 星期一

The Great Tradition by FR Leavis

此書有漢譯本。
The controversial critic’s statement on English literature is an entertaining,…
THEGUARDIAN.COM|由 ROBERT MCCRUM 上傳

MADNESS AND CIVILIZATION: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason by Michel Foucault

"Confined in the ship, from which it is impossible to escape, the madman is confined to the thousand branches of the river, the thousand paths of the sea, to this great uncertainty external to everything. He is a prisoner in the midst of the most free, the most open of roads: chained solidly to an infinite crossroads."
--from MADNESS AND CIVILIZATION: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason by Michel Foucault
Perhaps the French philosopher's masterpiece, which is concerned with an extraordinary question: What does it mean to be mad?

2016年8月28日 星期日

THEATRE/THE PAINTED VEIL by W. Somerset Maugham


“Those words, though heaven only knew how often she had heard them, still gave her her thrill. They braced her like a tonic. Life acquired significance. She was about to step from the world of make-believe into the world of reality.”
―from THEATRE



“Some of us look for the Way in opium and some in God, some of us in whiskey and some in love. It is all the same Way and it leads nowhither.”
―from THE PAINTED VEIL



“How can I be reasonable? To me our love was everything and you were my whole life. It is not very pleasant to realize that to you it was only an episode.”
―from THE PAINTED VEIL by W. Somerset Maugham


Set in England and Hong Kong in the 1920s, The Painted Veil is the story of the beautiful but love-starved Kitty Fane. When her husband discovers her adulterous affair, he forces her to accompany him to the heart of a cholera epidemic. Stripped of the British society of her youth and the small but effective society she fought so hard to attain in Hong Kong, she is compelled by her awakening conscience to reassess her life and learn how to love. READ an excerpt here: http://knopfdoubleday.com/book/109394/the-painted-veil/

"The Sorrows of Young Werther" (1774) by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe


“The human race is a monotonous affair. Most people spend the greatest part of their time working in order to live, and what little freedom remains so fills them with fear that they seek out any and every means to be rid of it.”

"No doubt you are right, my best of friends, there would be far less suffering amongst mankind, if men—and God knows why they are so fashioned—did not employ their imaginations so assiduously in recalling the memory of past sorrow, instead of bearing their present lot with equanimity."
--from "The Sorrows of Young Werther" (1774) by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
One of the towering figures of world literature, Goethe has never held quite as prominent a place in the English-speaking world as he deserves. This collection of his four major works, together with a selection of his finest letters and poems, shows that he is not only one of the very greatest European writers: he is also accessible, entertaining, and contemporary. The Sorrows of Young Werther is a story of self-destructive love that made its author a celebrity overnight at the age of twenty-five. Its exploration of the conflicts between ideas and feelings, between circumstance and desire, continues in his controversial novel probing the institution of marriage, Elective Affinities. The cosmic drama of Faust goes far beyond the realism of the novels in a poetic exploration of good and evil, while Italian Journey, written in the author’s old age, recalls his youth in Italy and the impact of Mediterranean culture on a young northerner. Translators includeW.H. Auden, Louise Bogan, David Constantine, Barker Fairley, and Elizabeth Mayer. MORE here:http://knopfdoubleday.com/book/61089/selected-works/

Faust 《浮士德》德英對照........ Walter Kaufmann. Henri Lichtenberger


Vintage Books & Anchor Books

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe was born on this day in 1749.
“Two souls, alas, are housed within my breast,
And each will wrestle for the mastery there.”
―from FAUST by Goethe
The best translation of Faust available, this volume provides the original German text and its English counterpart on facing pages. Walter Kaufmann's translation conveys the poetic beauty and rhythm as well as the complex depth of Goethe's language. Includes Part One and selections from Part Two.



Faust (1926 film) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Faust_(1926_film)

Faust is a 1926 silent film produced by UFA, directed by F. W. Murnau, starring Gösta Ekman as Faust, Emil Jannings as Mephisto, Camilla Horn as ...

Faust (1926) High Quality F.W. Murnau - YouTube

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ha3k_ltsWV4
Apr 17, 2013 - Uploaded by voxtelum
From imdb God and Satan war over earth; to settle things, they wager on the soul of Faust, a learned and ...
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Henri Lichtenberger — Wikipédia

Henri Lichtenberger (12 March 1864, Mulhouse – 4 November 1941, Biarritz) was a French academic who specialized in German literature.


Henri Lichtenberger 《浮士德研究》李辰冬譯,台北:東大圖書,1976

這本書是 Henri Lichtenberger 翻譯Faust  成法文的上下冊之導言

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存疑

以歌德看,什麼叫做生活?生活就是升高(steigerung),我們要找尋生活中顯示出永遠往高升的方向,在這種高升的革命姿態所產生的東西,就是人類典型的美麗。歌德把生活寫成像賭徒在快樂的賭桌前,總是高聲叫著:加注!


俗稱浮士德餐廳的奧爾巴赫地窖(Auerbachs Keller),外頭矗立著浮士德與魔鬼菲斯特的雕像,......
Suite aux messages privés des fans, nous diffusons le compte-rendu de la conférence qui a eu lieu le 25 septembre dernier au Musée Delacroix sur "Le mythe de Faust dans la création au XIXe siècle", par Elisabeth Brisson, agrégée et docteur en histoire
http://www.musee-delacroix.fr/IMG/pdf/Compte-_rendu_conference_Elisabeth_Brisson.pdf
Participez à la conférence d'Elisabeth Brisson jeudi 25 septembre à 18h30 dans l'atelier d'Eugène Delacroix, autour du mythe de Faust dans la création artistique du XIXe siècle.

Photo : Faust dans son cabinet, Eugène DELACROIX. © Photo RMN-Grand Palais - G. Blot / C. Jean
 — 與 Feza Mör 。

參加會議的伊莉莎白豬蹄甲 9 月 25 日 (星期四) 在 6:30 下午在車間由歐仁德拉克洛瓦,圍繞浮士德 》 中的 19 世紀藝術創作的神話。圖片: 浮士德 》 中他的內閣,歐仁德拉克洛瓦。© 照片核磁共振大皇宮及玉 G.污點 / 訴瓊 (翻譯由 Bing 提供)

浮士德Faust是這樣重要的一本書,已成為經典,我們可以舉尼采(1986)《超善惡:未來哲學序曲 236/條》(詳下)和易易卜生(Ibsen)在1867年完成 Peer Gynt《培爾 金特》(蕭乾譯,台北:書林,1999,頁142。又可參考 Peter Watts 譯本(Penguin Classics1966)頁134的詳注和分析。…so that Peer aptly say” The Eternal Feminine leads us on’….
「正如一位名作家所說的:”Das ewig Weibliche ziechet uns an!*”」(*德語,永恆之女性領導我們前行。這是德國詩人哥德所著《浮士德》一書最後一語。)
由於蕭先生根據的英譯版本比較舊,所以不知道這裡有Ibsen 的故事筆誤:哥德原文是”…ziecht uns an!”
《浮士德》的譯文:
永恆的女性*
引我們飛升**(綠原,頁453,各行一詳注***永恆的女性*引領我們高升。(周學普,頁655*注。)
「那個為但丁和哥德所信仰的女人的東西前者既然他唱到『她抬頭仰祝,而我瞧著她』,後者,既然他把女人轉譯成:『永恆女性引著我們上升』-- 我不懷疑,每位高貴的女人都會向這種信仰抗爭。因為,女人所信仰的,恰是來自永恆性的東西……」(尼采(1886)《超善惡:未來哲學序曲》張念東、凌素心譯,北京:中央編譯出版社,2000,頁168。又請進一步參考 Laurence Lampert《尼采的使命:《超善惡:未來哲學序曲》的釋讀》李致遠、李小均譯,北京:華夏,2009,頁287-88。尼采的「男性學」和「女性學」等。又,尼采在《超善惡》還有一妙論:
That which Dante and Goethe believed of woman – the former when he sang ‘ella guardava suso, ed io in lei’ the latter when he translated it ‘the eternal-womanly draws us upward’ - : I do not doubt that every nobler woman will this belief, for that is precisely what she believes of eternal-manly…(Beyond Good and Evi: Prelude to a Philosophy of the Future by Nietsche, Penguin Classics, 1972)
我們簡單談一下 Faust 第二部與哥德《色彩論》的關係。根據Leshan & Margenau, Einstein's Space and Van Gogh's Sky, Collier Books, New York, 1982.14章:「牛頓與哥德的色彩諸世界:兩種真實領域」指出,一為科學之真實,一為詩人之感受,都應該尊重之。我們可以用
綠原《浮士德》的譯文的台北版本(台北;貓頭鷹)的注解來說明:在第二部的起頭和結束都有相關資料:
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‘The devil is old; you must become old to understand him.’—Faust
據說社會學大家韋伯(Max Weber1864-1920)晚年遭逢政治世局大變(1919),必須區分「責任倫理」(ethic of responsibility)與「良心倫理」(ethic of conscience),並引了浮士德》這樣的話:「魔道古老;你要活得夠久才會了解牠。」*
*出自《浮士德》第二部第二幕, 6815-6818行
梅菲斯特:「你們對於我的話很冷淡,/你們都是好孩子,我可以寬恕。/但想想!惡魔是老人,/你們老了之後,才會把惡魔的話語領悟。」(周學普譯浮士德(臺北:志文,頁388))
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某本文化史提到()艾克曼[Johann Peter Eckermann]輯錄歌德談話錄,我發現它是大陸的中學指定課外書,所以大陸有近十本的翻譯,不過我有的全譯本,卻是著名的朱先生翻譯的大異其趣……
再怎樣差的全譯本一定有優點,我從一首引Faust的詩中,發現它在談語言,可能相關…..所以我去找綠原翻譯的浮士德(北京:人民文學版),發現「因為正是在沒有意義的地方,塞進一個詞兒總來得及。」(p.57)好像有希望……
再找周學普翻譯的浮士德(臺北:志文,1978)。得啦!「因為就在概念缺乏的地方,在適當的時機也會有言語出來。」(1995-96行,頁132)。
綠原翻譯的『浮士德』有注解哥德的對於語言是否信任之問題,不過他翻譯得比較怪。周學普的翻譯無注解,可是似乎比較正確。
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"譯場(su)報告" * On Translating *
No.50, 2008
321日; 2008/1/28 創刊
主題:上周在RD發現將gods等翻譯成"單數"的神的。忘記錄下。昨晚翻錢鍾書先生的"談藝錄"一書,提到創世紀:Chapter 3 5/節之gods 之原委(他說在GotheFaust終於將它說成 God……)。
我找出英文本,都為 gods,不過新舊教的中文本都「翻譯成"單數"的神」。以下是思高本
蛇對女人說:「你們決不會死!
4And the serpent said to the woman: No, you shall not die the death.
5因為天主知道,你們那天吃了這果子,你們的眼就會開了,將如同天主一樣知道善惡。」
3But of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of paradise, God hath commanded us that we should not eat; and that we should not touch it, lest perhaps we die.
****

Faust - Alexander Sokurov

8:25
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OWlt6ZP6qjY

Venice Golden Lion for Alexander Sokurov's Faust
Alexander Sokurov with his Golden Lion in Venice - 10 September 2011
  Sokurov appealed for governments to continue funding the arts
Russian director Alexander Sokurov's take on the German legend Faust has won the film a Golden Lion - the top award at the Venice Film Festival.
The classic tale explores the corrupting nature of power as scholar Faust sells his soul to the devil.
German-born Irish actor Michael Fassbender was named best actor for playing a sex addict in British director Steve McQueen's Shame.
The best actress award went to Hong Kong's Deanie Yip in A Simple Life.
Best actor
Fassbender, 34, previously worked with McQueen in the filmmaker's Bafta-winning debut feature Hunger, playing jailed IRA hunger striker Bobby Sands.
Michael Fassbender Fassbender recently starred in X-Men: First Class
Accepting his acting honour, he said: "It's just really nice when you take chance and you do something that you think is relevant - you hope is relevant - and people respond the way they did."
Fassbender also starred in another Venice competition film - David Cronenberg's A Dangerous Method - in which he plays psychoanalyst Carl Jung.
The film will show at the London Film Festival next month.
Golden Lion winner Faust was praised by US director Darren Aronofsky - head of the Venice jury - who presented the award.
He said: "There are some films that make you cry, there are some films that make you laugh, there are some films that change you forever after you see them; and this is one of them."
At a news conference following the award ceremony, Sokurov appealed for governments to continue funding the arts.
"Culture is not a luxury! It is the basis for the development of the society," he said.

UNESCO聯合國教科文組織70歲 and the Strange Career of Multiculturalism: 宏圖大業:聯合國教科文組織編年史(1946-1993)UNESCO 在60年代資助台灣翻譯/

"Like so much of what UNESCO has attempted over its seven-decade career, the world heritage program suffers, if anything, from a surfeit of good intentions. But it continues to be incapable of coping with two elephants in the room: the nation-states that determine what gets designated as cultural heritage and the global tourism industry that profits from the designations."

Does multiculturalism still have its revolutionary potential?
LAREVIEWOFBOOKS.ORG


原標題:習近平在聯合國教科文組織總部的演講(全文)
人民網巴黎3月27日電國家主席習近平27日在巴黎聯合國教科文組織總部發表演講。演講全文如下:

在聯合國教科文組織總部的演講

(2014年3月27日,巴黎)

中華人民共和國主席習近平

尊敬的博科娃總幹事,

女士們,先生們,朋友們:

大家好!有機會來到聯合國教科文組織總部,感到十分高興。首先,我謹對博科娃女士再次當選教科文組織總幹事,表示衷心的祝賀!對教科文組織為推動人類文明交流互鑑作出的卓越貢獻,表示誠摯的敬意!



3月27日,國家主席習近平在巴黎聯合國教科文組織總部發表重要演講。新華社記者姚大偉攝

教科文組織誕生於69年前,那時世界反法西斯戰爭硝煙剛剛散去。面對戰爭給人類帶來的慘烈後果,人類又一次反思戰爭與和平的真諦。千百年來,人類都夢想著持久和平,但戰爭始終像一個幽靈一樣伴隨著人類發展歷程。此時此刻,世界上很多孩子正生活在戰亂的驚恐之中。我們必須作出努力,讓戰爭遠離人類,讓全世界的孩子們都在和平的陽光下幸福成長。

在教科文組織總部大樓前的石碑上,用多種語言鐫刻著這樣一句話:“戰爭起源於人之思想,故務需於人之思想中築起保衛和平之屏障。”

只要世界人民在心靈中堅定了和平理念、揚起了和平風帆,就能形成防止和反對戰爭的強大力量。人們希望通過文明交流、平等教育、普及科學,消除隔閡、偏見、仇視,播撒和平理念的種子。這就是教科文組織成立的初衷。

這樣一種期待,這樣一種憧憬,是我們今天依然要堅守的。不僅要堅守,而且要通過跨國界、跨時空、跨文明的教育、科技、文化活動,讓和平理念的種子在世界人民心中生根發芽,讓我們共同生活的這個星球生長出一片又一片和平的森林。


自1945年成立以來,教科文組織忠實履行使命,在增進世界人民相互了解和信任、推動不同文明交流互鑑方面進行了不懈努力。中國高度重視同教科文組織的合作,願意加大參與教科文組織的各項活動。為體現對非洲的支持和幫助,我們決定把通過教科文組織向包括非洲國家在內的發展中國家提供的長城獎學金名額由每年25人擴大為75人,我們還將同教科文組織一道把援助非洲信託基金的活動繼續開展下去。


原標題:習近平在聯合國教科文組織總部的演講(全文)


女士們、先生們、朋友們!

文明因交流而多​​彩,文明因互鑑而豐富。文明交流互鑑,是推動人類文明進步和世界和平發展的重要動力。

推動文明交流互鑑,需要秉持正確的態度和原則。我認為,最重要的是堅持以下幾點。

第一,文明是多彩的,人類文明因多樣才有交流互鑑的價值。陽光有七種顏色,世界也是多彩的。一個國家和民族的文明是一個國家和民族的集體記憶。人類在漫長的歷史長河中,創造和發展了多姿多彩的文明。從茹毛飲血到田園農耕,從工業革命到信息社會,構成了波瀾壯闊的文明圖譜,書寫了激盪人心的文明華章。

“一花獨放不是春,百花齊放春滿園。”如果世界上只有一種花朵,就算這種花朵再美,那也是單調的。不論是中華文明,還是世界上存在的其他文明,都是人類文明創造的成果。

我參觀過法國盧浮宮,也參觀過中國故宮博物院,它們珍藏著千萬件藝術珍品,吸引人們眼球的正是其展現的多樣文明成果。文明交流互鑑不應該以獨尊某一種文明或者貶損某一種文明為前提。中國人在2000多年前就認識到了“物之不齊,物之情也”的道理。推動文明交流互鑑,可以豐富人類文明的色彩,讓各國人民享受更富內涵的精神生活、開創更有選擇的未來。

第二,文明是平等的,人類文明因平等才有交流互鑑的前提。各種人類文明在價值上是平等的,都各有千秋,也各有不足。世界上不存在十全十美的文明,也不存在一無是處的文明,文明沒有高低、優劣之分。

我訪問過世界上許多地方,最喜歡做的一件事情就是了解五大洲的不同文明,了解這些文明與其他文明的不同之處、獨到之處,了解在這些文明中生活的人們的世界觀、人生觀、價值觀。我到過代表古瑪雅文明的奇琴伊察,也到過帶有濃厚伊斯蘭文明色彩的中亞古城撒馬爾罕。我深深感到,要了解各種文明的真諦,必須秉持平等、謙虛的態度。如果居高臨下對待一種文明,不僅不能參透這種文明的奧妙,而且會與之格格不入。歷史和現實都表明,傲慢和偏見是文明交流互鑑的最大障礙。

第三,文明是包容的,人類文明因包容才有交流互鑑的動力。海納百川,有容乃大。人類創造的各種文明都是勞動和智慧的結晶。每一種文明都是獨特的。在文明問題上,生搬硬套、削足適履不僅是不可能的,而且是十分有害的。一切文明成果都值得尊重,一切文明成果都要珍惜。

歷史告訴我們,只有交流互鑑,一種文明才能充滿生命力。只要秉持包容精神,就不存在什麼“文明衝突”,就可以實現文明和諧。這就是中國人常說的:“蘿蔔青菜,各有所愛。”

中華文明經歷了5000多年的歷史變遷,但始終一脈相承,積澱著中華民族最深層的精神追求,代表著中華民族獨特的精神標識,為中華民族生生不息、發展壯大提供了豐厚滋養。中華文明是在中國大地上產生的文明,也是同其他文明不斷交流互鑑而形成的文明。

公元前100多年,中國就開始開闢通往西域的絲綢之路。漢代張騫於公元前138年和119年兩次出使西域,向西域傳播了中華文化,也引進了葡萄、苜蓿、石榴、胡麻、芝麻等西域文化成果。西漢時期,中國的船隊就到達了印度和斯里蘭卡,用中國的絲綢換取了琉璃、珍珠等物品。中國唐代是中國歷史上對外交流的活躍期。據史料記載,唐代中國通使交好的國家多達70多個,那時候的首都長安里來自各國的使臣、商人、留學生雲集成群。這個大交流促進了中華文化遠播世界,也促進了各國文化和物產傳入中國。15世紀初,中國明代著名航海家鄭和七次遠洋航海,到了東南亞很多國家,一直抵達非洲東海岸的肯尼亞,留下了中國同沿途各國人民友好交往的佳話。明末清初,中國人積極學習現代科技知識,歐洲的天文學、醫學、數學、幾何學、地理學知識紛紛傳入中國,開闊中國人的知識視野。之後,中外文明交流互鑑更是頻繁展開,這其中有衝突、矛盾、疑惑、拒絕,但更多是學習、消化、融合、創新。

佛教產生於古代印度,但傳入中國後,經過長期演化,佛教同中國儒家文化和道家文化融合發展,最終形成了具有中國特色的佛教文化,給中國人的宗教信仰、哲學觀念、文學藝術、禮儀習俗等留下了深刻影響。中國唐代玄奘西行取經,歷盡磨難,體現的是中國人學習域外文化的堅韌精神。根據他的故事演繹的神話小說《西遊記》,我想大家都知道。中國人根據中華文化發展了佛教思想,形成了獨特的佛教理論,而且使佛教從中國傳播到了日本、韓國、東南亞等地。

2000多年來,佛教、伊斯蘭教、基督教等先後傳入中國,中國音樂、繪畫、文學等也不斷吸納外來文明的優長。中國傳統畫法同西方油畫融合創新,形成了獨具魅力的中國寫意油畫,徐悲鴻等大師的作品受到廣泛讚賞。中國的造紙術、火藥、印刷術、指南針四大發明帶動了世界變革,推動了歐洲文藝復興。中國哲學、文學、醫藥、絲綢、瓷器、茶葉等傳入西方,滲入西方民眾日常生活之中。《馬可·波羅遊記》令無數人對中國心嚮往之。
大家都知道,中國有秦俑,人們稱之為“地下的軍團”。法國總統希拉克參觀之後說:“不看金字塔,不算真正到過埃及。不看秦俑,不算真正到過中國。”1987年,這一塵封了2000多年的中華文化珍品被列入世界文化遺產。中國還有大量文明成果被教科文組織列入世界文化遺產、世界非物質文化遺產、世界記憶遺產名錄。這裡,我要對教科文組織為保存和傳播中華文明作出的貢獻,表示衷心的感謝!

女士們、先生們、朋友們!

當今世界,人類生活在不同文化、種族、膚色、宗教和不同社會制度所組成的世界裡,各國人民形成了你中有我、我中有你的命運共同體。

中國人早就懂得了“和而不同”的道理。生活在2500年前的中國史學家左丘明在《左傳》中記錄了齊國上大夫晏子關於“和”的一段話:“和如羹焉,水、火、醯、醢、鹽、梅,以烹魚肉。”“聲亦如味,一氣,二體,三類,四物,五聲,六律,七音,八風,九歌,以相成也。”“若以水濟水,誰能食之?若琴瑟之專壹,誰能聽之?”

世界上有200多個國家和地區,2500多個民族和多種宗教。如果只有一種生活方式,只有一種語言,只有一種音樂,只有一種服飾,那是不可想像的。

雨果說,世界上最寬闊的是海洋,比海洋更寬闊的是天空,比天空更寬闊的是人的胸懷。對待不同文明,我們需要比天空更寬闊的胸懷。文明如水,潤物無聲。我們應該推動不同文明相互尊重、和諧共處,讓文明交流互鑑成為增進各國人民友誼的橋樑、推動人類社會進步的動力、維護世界和平的紐帶。我們應該從不同文明中尋求智慧、汲取營養,為人們提供精神支撐和心靈慰藉,攜手解決人類共同面臨的各種挑戰。

1987年,在中國陝西的法門寺,地宮中出土了20件美輪美奐的琉璃器,這是唐代傳​​入中國的東羅馬和伊斯蘭的琉璃器。我在欣賞這些域外文物時,一直在思考一個問題,就是對待不同文明,不能只滿足於欣賞它們產生的精美物件,更應該去領略其中包含的人文精神;不能只滿足於領略它們對以往人們生活的藝術表現,更應該讓其中蘊藏的精神鮮活起來。

女士們、先生們、朋友們!

拿破崙曾經說過,世上有兩種力量:利劍和思想;從長而論,利劍總是敗在思想手下。我們要積極發展教育事業,通過普及教育,啟迪心智,傳承知識,陶冶情操,使人們在持續的格物致知中更好認識各種文明的價值,讓教育為文明傳承和創造服務。我們要大力發展科技事業,通過科技進步和創新,認識自我,認識世界,改造社會,使人們在持續的天工開物中更好掌握科技知識和技能,讓科技為人類造福。我們要大力推動文化事業發展,通過文化交流,溝通心靈,開闊眼界,增進共識,讓人們在持續的以文化人中提升素養,讓文化為人類進步助力。

女士們、先生們、朋友們!

中國人民正在為實現中華民族偉大復興的中國夢而奮鬥。實現中華民族偉大復興的中國夢,就是要實現國家富強、民族振興、人民幸福,既深深體現了今天中國人的理想,也深深反映了中國人自古以來不懈追求進步的光榮傳統。

實現中國夢,是物質文明和精神文明均衡發展、相互促進的結果。沒有文明的繼承和發展,沒有文化的弘揚和繁榮,就沒有中國夢的實現。中華民族的先人們早就嚮往人們的物質生活充實無憂、道德境界充分昇華的大同世界。中華文明歷來把人的精神生活納入人生和社會理想之中。所以,實現中國夢,是物質文明和精神文明比翼雙飛的發展過程。隨著中國經濟社會不斷發展,中華文明也必將順應時代發展煥發出更加蓬勃的生命力。

每一種文明都延續著一個國家和民族的精神血脈,既需要薪火相傳、代代守護,更需要與時俱進、勇於創新。中國人民在實現中國夢的進程中,將按照時代的新進步,推動中華文明創造性轉化和創新性發展,激活其生命力,把跨越時空、超越國度、富有永恆魅力、具有當代價值的文化精神弘揚起來,讓收藏在博物館裡的文物、陳列在廣闊大地上的遺產、書寫在古籍裡的文字都活起來,讓中華文明同世界各國人民創造的豐富多彩的文明一道,為人類提供正確的精神指引和強大的精神動力。

女士們、先生們、朋友們!

“等閒識得東風面,萬紫千紅總是春。”明年是教科文組織成立70週年,我相信,在博科娃總幹事領導下,教科文組織一定能為推動人類文明交流互鑑、促進世界和平譜寫新的篇章。



謝謝大家。
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聯合國教科文組織UNESCO 在60年代資助台灣翻譯

《希臘羅馬名人傳》Plutarch (46-120)普魯塔克《道德論集 選》


亞里士多德 詩學箋註姚一葦譯注  國立編譯館 +台灣中華書局




Good Riddance to a Repeat U.N. Offender
Unesco's Palestine fiasco is only the latest of the agency's offenses.




good riddance

Also, good riddance to bad rubbish. A welcome loss or departure. This expression is often used as an exclamation. For example, The principal has finally retired, and most of the teachers are saying, "Good riddance!" or When Jean decided to give up her violin her relieved family quietly said, "Good riddance to bad rubbish.". [Late 1700s]

新聞報導 | 2011.11.07
教科文組織前景堪憂
聯合國教科文組織未來的經費還沒有著落。在美國停止向該機構繳納會員費後,教科文組織缺少資金來維持重要的文化項目。德國執政黨聯盟黨對此的立場很明確:教科文組織是作繭自縛。美國很快就作出了反應。在聯合國教科文組織於10月31日決定接納巴勒斯坦為成員後,美國立即宣布,將兌現此前的威脅,停止向該機構提供資金。華盛頓是教科文組織重要的出資國,每年提供6000萬美元的資金,佔教科文組織經費預算的22%。教科文組織沒有想到的是,美國會這麼快就付諸行動。至少教科文組織總幹事博科娃(Irina Bokova)給人的印像是這樣的。她11月2日對媒體表示:"我呼籲美國政府、國會和美國人民,尋找一條新的道路,在目前這個艱難時刻,繼續支持聯合國教科文組織的工作。"她指出,該機構的資金也用來資助與美國的利益息息相關的項目,例如伊拉克獨立媒體的發展和阿富汗警察的掃盲。教科文組織總幹事博科娃教科文組織總幹事博科娃德國不會停止出資與美國一樣對接納巴勒斯坦投了反對票的德國則表示,將繼續為教科文組織提供資金。德國每年為該機構出資2300萬歐元。聯邦政府負責文化事務的國務秘書皮佩爾(Cornelia Pieper)表示,德國不會停止繳費。這位與德國外長韋斯特韋勒同屬自民黨的女政治家說:"我們認為,現在用這樣的措施來懲罰教科文組織是沒有道理的。"與自民黨聯合執政的聯盟黨則對教科文組織提出了批評。聯盟黨議會黨團的外交政策發言人米斯菲爾德(Philipp Missfelder)在接受德國之聲採訪時說:"美國的做法只是對教科文組織錯誤決定的一個反應而已。"他認為,教科文組織作出的許多決定"都是​​對以色列的詆毀,讓這個國家成為眾矢之的,但事實上,以色列是整個中東地區唯一運作有效的民主國家。"米斯菲爾德還指出,聯合國教科文組織有越俎代庖之嫌,"其實該組織更應該起到調解的作用,聯合國組織應該保持中立。"在聯邦層面代表德國民間文化團體的德國文化理事會則批評美國的做法不恰當。該理事會執行長齊默曼(Olaf Zimmermann)對德國之聲表示:"這是一個民主的程序。教科文組織的多數成員作出了這一決定。而現在少數反過來要懲罰這個組織,這是不可以的。"他擔心,美國在做法會對其他國家產生示範效應​​。以色列和加拿大已經宣布,也將停止向教科文組織繳納會費。德國文化理事會得出的結論是:"聯合國教科文組織的根本基礎受到了動搖"。作者:Friederike Schulz 編譯:葉宣責編:樂然



联合国教科文组织未来的经费还没有着落。在美国停止向该机构缴纳会员费后,教科文组织缺少资金来维持重要的文化项目。德国执政党联盟党对此的立场很明确:教科文组织是作茧自缚。



戒嚴氣氛中,聯合國教科文組織迎來70歲生日

聯合國教科文組織成立於1945年11月16日,首批簽約的只有37個國家。目前,這個組織已發展成為擁有195個會員的聯合國所屬的大型機構。週一,在剛剛經歷恐怖襲擊的巴黎,該組織迎來70歲生日。
UNESCO Konferenz in Paris

(德國之聲中文網)1945年11月,整個世界還未能從剛剛結束的戰爭中得到恢復。當時英國教育大臣維德金森( Ellen Witkinson)召集了37個國家的代表在倫敦聚會,商討怎樣以文化作為長久維護和平的有效手段。在她看來,一切戰爭都是在人類的頭腦中首先醞釀誕生的,那麼,和平也應該深深地植根於人類的大腦中。當年11月16日,出席倫敦會議的人們簽署了聯合國教科文組織憲章。
這個文件的總綱中寫道:"建立在政府間政治與經濟協定基礎上的和平,無法取代世界各民族一致、長久與真誠的支持。要讓和平不遭受失敗,必須把它植根於人類的精神與道德之中。"
聯合國教科文組織在戰爭結束前的構想階段,首先被設計成一個對話平台,參與國進行雙邊協商並簽訂協定。隨著聯合國框架的雛形逐漸得到廣泛接受,教科文組織的設計者們認為,在聯合國框架下該組織展開全球性活動的機會才能夠得以保障,於是,教科文組織在成立之初便是聯合國的一個下屬機構。
開始時,該機構是以美國為首的西方陣營的代言人。隨著時代的變遷,尤其在上世紀60年代之後,聯合國教科文組織參與國當中,東西方以及南北方之間的比例發生了變化,因此領導結構也隨之發生變化。德意志電台舉例報導,1974年,教科文組織秘書長首次由一名非洲人擔任。這個創先河之舉招致了即便被看作是自由派媒體的《華盛頓郵報》的激烈抨擊:"聯合國教科文組織被第三世界的共產主義者集體劫持。他們對消除文盲的計劃並不感興趣,他們更熱衷的是搞意識形態的大辯論,更垂涎豪華的生活方式。"
美國停交會費
一直以來聯合國教科文組織的全體大會奉行"一國一票"的原則。這樣一個結構很難讓美國主導的西方推動並貫徹他們的理念。
Kaiserkanal in China
大運河與2014年被列入世界文化遺產名冊
2011年,該組織全體大會以三分之二多數通過了接納巴勒斯坦為觀察國成員的決議,該事件導致教科文組織的最大金主美國停止繳納會費。美國繳納的會費佔該組織會費總額的22%。作為成員國的以色列也配合了美國的行動停止繳納會費。
此後,聯合國教科文組織的財政狀況陷入極度窘境,尤其是世界文化遺產委員會(World Heritage Committee) 更是深受其苦。該委員會每年舉行年會,期間做出接收新的文化遺產並將其列入世界文化遺產名錄的決定,以及哪些已經入冊的人類文化遺產受到威脅(上了紅名單)或將之刪除。
1978年,世界文化遺產委員會首次頒發"世界文化遺產"的稱號。截止到2014年來,全世界161個國家和地區的1007個自然景觀和建築獲得這一榮譽。
原計劃在今年11月16日這一天,聯合國教科文組織在巴黎舉行盛大的紀念該機構成立70週年儀式,將迎來許多國家的首腦。但造成近130人死亡的恐怖襲擊事件發生後,一些貴賓如伊朗總統盧哈尼已取消行程,加上法國實施戒嚴令,這一活動是否如期舉行,截稿時還未能知曉。


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不知怎麼回事 胡適的日記缺1945年
1945年11月初 中國派到倫敦 去制定UNESCO 憲章的代表團的
首席代表是胡適 其他代表為 李書華 程天放 羅家倫和趙元任
李書華先生有參加"聯合國教科文組織大會前後五次的回憶" (未讀)
羅家倫先生至少也有一篇他們(未說訪者)會後去"一次訪問 一次觀摩"泰晤士報的精彩記錄

2008/9/2

The Story of a Grand Design: UNESCO 1946-1993-People, Events and Achievements

Michel Conil Lacoste (著) The Story of a Grand Design: UNESCO 1946-1993-People, Events and Achievements (UNESCO Reference Books) Unesco (1995/05)
宏圖大業:聯合國教科文組織編年史(1946-1993)》中國對外翻譯出版公司 1996



p.204 英文有錯
應該是VENICE RESTORED: UNESCO Twenty-five years have passed since 4 November 1966, the day when Venice was flooded ... Publication Date, 11-03-1991 10:00 am. Publication Location, Paris ... www.unesco.org





Willa Cather 作品

The University of Nebraska's Willa Cather Digital Archives

http://cather.unl.edu/



Everyman's Library
"The Hawthorn Tree" by Willa Cather
Across the shimmering meadows--
Ah, when he came to me!
In the spring-time,
In the night-time,
In the starlight,
Beneath the hawthorn tree.
Up from the misty marsh-land--
Ah, when he climbed to me!
To my white bower,
To my sweet rest,
To my warm breast,
Beneath the hawthorn tree.
Ask of me what the birds sang,
High in the hawthorn tree;
What the breeze tells,
What the rose smells,
What the stars shine--
Not what he said to me!
*
Before Willa Cather went on to write the novels that would make her famous, she was known as a poet, the most popular of her poems reprinted many times in national magazines and anthologies. Her first book of poetry, April Twilights, was published in 1903, but Cather significantly revised and expanded it in a 1923 edition entitled April Twilights and Other Poems. This Everyman’s Library edition reproduces for the first time all the poems from both versions of April Twilights, along with a number of uncollected and previously unpublished poems by Cather, as well as an illuminating selection of her newly released letters. In such lyrical poems as “The Hawthorn Tree,” “Winter at Delphi,” “Prairie Spring,” “Poor Marty,” and “Going Home,” Cather exhibits both a finely tuned sensitivity to the beauties of the physical world and a richly symbolic use of the landscapes of myth. The themes that were to animate her later masterpieces found their first expression in these haunting, elegiac ballads and sonnets.

Vintage Books & Anchor Books
"He came to be very glad that he had known her, and that she had had a hand in breaking him in to life. He has known pretty women and clever ones since then,—but never one like her, as she was in her best days. Her eyes, when they laughed for a moment into one's own, seemed to promise a wild delight that he has not found in life. 'I know where it is,' they seemed to say, 'I could show you!'"  
Willa Cather, A LOST LADY
《殘百合》張心漪譯,台北:暢流,1956;台北:大地:1981,pp.134-35
A portrait of a woman who reflects the conventions of her age even as she defies them and whose transformations embody the decline and coarsening of the American frontier.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Lost_Lady
WillaCather ALostLady.jpg
First edition
AuthorWilla Cather
CountryUnited States
LanguageEnglish
PublisherAlfred A. Knopf
Publication date
September 1923
Media typePrint (Hardback)

翻譯偵探事務所新增了 3 張相片
2014年9月12日
1956年張心漪翻譯的「殘百合」,暢流出版,譯自美國女作家Willa Cather的小說A Lost Lady(1923)。Willa Cather在1940-1950年代頗受歡迎,湯新楣翻譯的「原野長宵」(後改名「我的安東妮亞」)和「開墾的人」都再版多次。
這本「殘百合」是從一個孩子的角度,描寫一個迷人的少婦。少婦的丈夫比她年長二十五歲,老夫少妻,後來丈夫年事漸高,中風以後,妻子仍在盛年,有次與人偷情被那敘事者看到,遂覺偶像崩壞,無限悵惘..因此書名A Lost Lady。張心漪譯的真好看,但書名讓人想到「殘花敗柳」,似乎有點言重。



1940.12.18 胡適50歲生日後一天給Roberta (Robby) Lowitz*一封信.
說昨天杜威博士給他一封很好的短箋.....兩個晚上前胡適讀 Willa Cather (1873 - 1947) Double Birthday,( set in Pittsburgh, is part of a group referred to as the Pittsburgh stories.) ,說它是其生平讀過的最佳小說之一......."我喜Willa Cather的書. 妳知道她嗎?"......


"Even in American cities, which seem so much alike, where people seem all to be living the same lives, striving for the same things, thinking the same thoughts, there are still individuals a little out of tune with the times - there are still survivals of a past more loosely woven, there are disconcerting beginnings of a future yet unforeseen."
 *
 胡適之先生的世界The World of Dr. Hu Shih: 胡適的愛情神話: 《星星 ...
hushihhc.blogspot.com/.../blog-post_4967.ht...Translate this page
Aug 2, 2012 - 胡適與Roberta (Robby) Lowitz (後來為杜威夫人/師母胡適晚年說Robby是富家女將杜威照顧得很好......)的情緣不過我們看杜威的傳記中怎說她倆的 ...
*****
'The Selected Letters of Willa Cather'
Edited by ANDREW JEWELL and JANIS STOUT
Reviewed by TOM PERROTTA


In her letters, the novelist Willa Cather emerges as a strong and vivid presence, a woman at once surprisingly modern and touchingly - if not always sweetly - old-fashioned.
O Pioneers! is a 1913 novel by American author Willa Cather. It was written in part when Cather was living in Cherry Valley, New York, with Isabelle McClung[1] and was completed at the McClungs' home in Pittsburgh.[2]

啊,拓荒者!資中筠 譯(《閑情記美》內收入1988/1997 二版的介紹----
The Project Gutenberg EBook of O Pioneers!, by Willa Cather ,沒收入文中說的題詞。
  
   http://cather.unl.edu/0017.html  



Willa Cather was born on this day in 1873 in Virginia, though she lived in Nebraska from age ten.
"The great fact was the land itself, which seemed to overwhelm the little beginnings of human society that struggled in its sombre wastes. It was from facing this vast hardness that the boy's mouth had become so bitter; because he felt that men were too weak to make any mark here, that the land wanted to be let alone, to preserve its own fierce strength, its peculiar, savage kind of beauty, its uninterrupted mournfulness." --from "O Pioneers!" (1913)
No other work of fiction so vividly evokes the harsh beauty and epic sweep of the Nebraska prairies that Cather knew and loved. The heroine of O Pioneers!, Alexandra Bergson, is a young Swedish immigrant at the turn of the twentieth century who inherits her father’s wind-blasted land and, through years of hard work, turns it into a prosperous farm. Fiercely independent, Alexandra sacrifices love and companionship in her passionate devotion to the land, until tragedy strikes and brings with it the chance for a new life.

PRAIRIE SPRING EVENING and the flat land, Rich and sombre and always silent; The miles of fresh-plowed soil, Heavy and black, full of strength and harshness; The growing wheat, the growing weeds, The toiling horses, the tired men; The long empty roads, Sullen fires of sunset, fading, The eternal, unresponsive sky. Against all this, Youth, Flaming like the wild roses, Singing like the larks over the plowed fields, Flashing like a star out of the twilight; Youth with its insupportable sweetness, Its fierce necessity, Its sharp desire, Singing and singing, Out of the lips of silence, Out of the earthy dusk.


Willa Sibert Cather was born in Gore, Virginia on this day in 1873.
"That is happiness; to be dissolved into something complete and great. When it comes to one, it comes as naturally as sleep."
— from 'My Ántonia' by Willa Cather
Often considered her first masterpiece, with 'My Ántonia' Willa Cather created one of the most winning yet thoroughly convincing heroines in American fiction. Ántonia Shimerda, the daughter of Bohemian immigrants, not only survives her father's suicide, poverty, and a failed romance, she triumphs with high spirits. 'My Ántonia' was enthusiastically received in 1918 when it was first published, and placed Cather in the forefront of women novelists.
-----

“In great misfortunes, people want to be alone. They have a right to be. And the misfortunes that occur within one are the greatest. Surely the saddest thing in the world is falling out of love--if once one has ever fallen in.”
―from THE PROFESSOR'S HOUSE by Willa Cather
A study in emotional dislocation and renewal--Professor Godfrey St. Peter, a man in his 50's, has achieved what would seem to be remarkable success. When called on to move to a more comfortable home, something in him rebels.

Everyman's Library
"The sky was as full of motion and change as the desert beneath it was monotonous and still, — and there was so much sky, more than at sea, more than anywhere else in the world. The plain was there, under one's feet, but what one saw when one looked about was that brilliant blue world of stinging air and moving cloud. Even the mountains were mere ant-hills under it. Elsewhere the sky is the roof of the world; but here the earth was the floor of the sky. The landscape one longed for when one was away, the thing all about one, the world one actually lived in, was the sky, the sky!"
--from DEATH COMES FOR THE ARCHBISHOP (1927) by Willa Cather
Willa Cather’s story of the missionary priest Father Jean Marie Latour and his work of faith in the wilderness of the Southwest is told with a spare but sensuous directness and profound artistry. When Latour arrives in 1851 in the territory of New Mexico, newly acquired by the United States, what he finds is a vast desert region of red hills and tortured arroyos that is American by law but Mexican and Indian in custom and belief. Over the next four decades, Latour works gently and tirelessly to spread his faith and to build a soaring cathedral out of the local golden rock—while contending with unforgiving terrain, derelict and sometimes rebellious priests, and his own loneliness. DEATH COMES FOR THE ARCHBISHOP shares a limitless, craggy beauty with the New Mexico landscape of desert, mountain, and canyon in which its central action takes place, and its evocations of that landscape and those who are drawn to it suggest why Cather is acknowledged without question as the most poetically exact chronicler of the American frontier. Introduction by A.S. Byatt. MORE here:http://knopfdoubleday.com/…/death-comes-for-…/9780679413196/

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