2010年7月30日 星期五

The Nature of Creative Development by Jonathan S. Feinstein

Table of Contents

1Introduction1
2Creative interests and conceptions of creative interests36
3The development of creative interests62
4Intrinsic sources of interest107
5Extrinsic and strategic factors in the development of creative interests134
6Kinds of creative interests160
7The distinctiveness and breadth of creative interests182
8Resonances and connections224
9Creative responses248
10Exploration of creative interests and creativity generation; creative expertise293
11The role of conceptions of creative interests and associated values and principles in guidance; management of creative development at the meta-level353
12Creativity in projects388
13Multiple interests425
14Patterns of creative development : patterns of projects; projects and interests444
15Patterns of creative development : evolution of interests and sequences of interests463
16Difficulties in creative development505
17Creative development and linkages of cultural transmission : modeling cultural development522
18Epilogue : modeling individuals in social systems543


The Nature of Creative Development by Jonathan S. Feinstein: Book Cover

The Nature of Creative Development by Jonathan S. Feinstein


  • 600pp

TEXTBOOK INFORMATION

  • ISBN-13: 9780804761246
  • Edition Description: New Edition
  • Edition Number: 1
  • Pub. Date: June 2006
  • Publisher: Stanford University Press
Other Formats

Product Details

  • Pub. Date: June 2006
  • Publisher: Stanford University Press
  • Format: Textbook Paperback, 600pp



Synopsis

The Nature of Creative Development explores how creative individuals come to have ideas, pursue projects, and make contributions to society. The author pays specific attention to the ways in which creativity grows out of and is sparked by personal interests and experiences. Many creative individuals are addressed throughout the book, including Virginia Woolf, Charles Darwin, Albert Einstein, Ray Kroc, and Piet Mondrian.

More Reviews and Recommendations

Biography

Jonathan S. Feinstein is the John G. Searle Professor of Economics and Management at the Yale School of Management.





Poems on poetry : literary criticism by Yuan Hao-wen, 1190-1257

Google books

元好問的論詩絕句三十首
Poems on poetry : literary criticism by Yuan Hao-wen, 1190-1257 / John Timothy Wixted ; calligraphy by Eugenia Y. Tu 陳寅恪寫錯
Bib ID 2204904
Format BookBook
Author
Wixted, John Timothy
Description Wiesbaden : Steiner, 1982.
xvi, 482 p. ; 24 cm.
ISBN 3515039147 (pbk.)
Series

Munchener ostasiatische Studien ; Bd. 33

Notes

Includes Chinese texts.

Revision of thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Oxford.

Includes indexes.

Bibliography: p. 328-361.

Subjects Yuan Hao-wen, - 1190-1257 - Criticism and interpretation. | Chinese poetry - History and criticism.
Other authors/contributors Tu, Eugenia Y | Yuan Hao-wen, 1190-1257

2010年7月29日 星期四

《貓型員工的時代》

貓型員工的時代

貓型員工的時代

貓型員工的時代──超越自我實現的幻想

  不對「自我實現」抱持幻想,不為了出人頭地而汲汲營營於小事,背棄滅私奉公主義,在喜歡的領域裡深研……。

  職場上的這種貓型員工逐漸增多了,公司裡若只有忠犬型員工,根本是無法存活於如此競爭的業界!

  掌握公司續存的關鍵是反覆無常、頑強的貓型員工,他們出現的背景是……?活躍方式又是什麼…….?本書中詳載許多消除社會的封閉、職場不協調的小技巧,絕對是一本讓人一看恍然大悟的好書!

作者簡介

山本直人

   1964年生於東京,慶應義塾大學法學部畢業。進入博報堂後,歷經撰文、製作、研究開發、人事等部門工作,於二○○四年辭職自立。著書有「不肯開口的年 輕人和不肯聽話的上司」、「賣不好是誰的錯?」等,現任青山學院大學講師。(網址www.naotoyamamoto.jp)

譯者簡介

陳柏勻

  失準的天秤座。眷戀都市的台北人。淡江大學日文系畢業。興趣總是增生,加上莫名的偏執性,導致生活空間總是花樣繁多,只好一直嚮往極簡風格。偏愛的音樂是搖滾樂,最近也開始聽輕音樂。希望透過翻譯,聆聽不同的想法,傳達不同的聲音。

名人推薦

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104人力銀行行銷總監 邱文仁專文推薦

詳細資料

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  • 叢書系列:方向
  • 規格:平裝 / 224頁 / 25k / 普級 / 單色印刷 / 初版
  • 出版地:台灣

目錄

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前言  你也可能是個貓型員工

第一章 為什麼是貓型員工?

發現貓型員工/ 增生繁殖的貓型人/緝毒犬和識毒貓/紅蘿蔔是沒用的/不願出人頭地的公務員們/昭和時代的貓型員工/抽痛感的原因/「心靈泡沫」的後遺症/公司會回到昭和時期嗎/詭異的工作論

第二章 「自我實現」的謊言

「自我實現」的幻覺/能夠達成「自我實現」,其實很幸運/眼花撩亂的轉職仲介文宣/煽動著所謂「職場生涯」的一群人/ 「普通、平凡」的重要性

第三章 「日本人=勤奮的一群」嗎?

「黏土上司」存在的理由/「零意願」的日本人/安逸、滿足的高中生/「勤奮」神話的誕生/深受「日本人本質」的束縛/勤奮的貧困

第四章 貓型員工的規則

信義大於忠誠,上進大於升職/鈴木一郎VS.老子/「忙碌」和「慌忙」/要獨當一面?還是要一流?/「工作」是生活的一部份/與其登山爬坡,不如闊步平原

第五章 「內弁慶」的員工會毀了公司

依舊醒目的「內弁慶」/處在可囂張的範圍內,便會開始囂張的人/不冒風險的男性化/男子氣概=進步至上/「貓」型員工與時代的交會

第六章 如何駕馭「貓」型員工

猜 不透他們在想些什麼?/不懂,其實是正常的/勒緊與放鬆之間的平衡/駕馭貓型人,製造一個玩沙場/讓他們自行尋找,有能力完成的事/駕馭「貓」型員工,不 要求回饋/培養對手/駕馭「貓」型員工~相信自己,放縱他們/仰木教練~培育「貓」型員工的達人/如何辨識「偽貓型員工」

第七章 貓型人有機會改變世界嗎?

貓 型人是突如其來的異變嗎?/工作價值、金錢與生活/減弱歸屬感/過度高漲的「勒緊」/做為一個「場所」的公司/認同「差不多就好」的觀念/也有努力的貓咪 /不灌輸所謂「企業文化」的價值觀/檢討「新卒一括採用」/「提早化」所帶來的禍殃/選擇考試型,不如選擇交際型/自己的事情要深思而後定

最終章 日本將會貓型化嗎?

貓型消費/令人憧憬的江戶時代/幸福的智慧

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推薦序

迎接「貓型員工」時代
104人力銀行 行銷總監 / 邱文仁

  前陣子本部門有位年輕美眉,工作表現不錯,我正打算給她升遷及更多舞台!沒想到她誠實的告訴我:「我雖然很崇拜妳,但是我不羨慕妳的人生!其實,我並不希望成為像妳一樣的那樣努力工作。我希望,以後可以花很多時間在男朋友身上,我想要有很多自己的時間...。」

  她繼續說:「其實我一直做現在的工作,也覺得很無聊。我不像妳們是高階主管,有很多工作的主導權,我還有很多夢想。」她拒絕了我給她更多任務的提議,寧可放棄升遷。

   這位美眉,平常工作表現不錯,產出也很有品質,我一直很欣賞她!我一直以為她很有企圖心,以為她能享受工作,一直到那天,我才發現我想錯了!聽到她這樣 拒絕我的好意,本來我有點迷惑!我以為,我給她的是她企盼的褒獎及職務,那怎麼會這樣呢?但仔細觀察了一陣子,我發現,周圍年輕的同事,愈來愈多人就是這 種類型!

  看完「貓型員工」後,我恍然大悟!這可不是一種奇特的工作觀,其實就是現在很多年輕工作者的傾向及典型,這是時代趨勢。現在的 年輕人想法,是以「自我」為主,和前一個世代「捨己為公」的「犬型員工」不同!身為「犬型員工」世代的主管,勢必將面臨愈來愈多有著不同價值觀的員工,但 還是得與他們共事。因此,我只能瞭解他們、接受他們、導引他們,來完成組織的任務。

  書中寫得很清楚。有著「貓型員工」特質的員工,與其為捨己為公,寧願珍重自我。但碰到該做的事,還是會努力完成。「貓型員工」認為玩比工作重要,而且,與其與了不起的目標比較,還不如每天過得幸福重要。

   這類員工,我不認為他們的想法有什麼錯!在勞資關係緊張,勞資互相不信任的今日職場,「與其為捨己為公,寧願珍重自我」,是反應社會的現實。「與其與了 不起的目標比較,還不如每天過得幸福重要」!這樣想,也是因為現代的上班族很難從工作感到「值得」,因此,在心中把「工作的價值」降低的想法。
這樣想對嗎?它中間還是有個盲點。

  以我個人為例。例如說,本部門這位年輕美眉覺得,努力工作的我「很累」,花很多「自己的時間」在工作,在她的想法裡,這樣投入工作,我的人生是苦的、累的,所以不想要過我的人生。

   啊!這往往是「貓型員工」的誤會。其實,我很喜歡自己的工作,所以即使會花很多「自己的時間」,我也覺得很開心有成就感。我並沒有「為工作犧牲掉生活」 的想法。這點,她應該從我每天都開開心心發現到,其實我比大多數人快樂,比不投入工作的人快樂。而且坦白說,我並沒有因為投入工作少玩到什麼,反而因為我 的職位及年資,假期比基層同事多。

  她說:「一直做現在的工作,也覺得很無聊。我不像妳們是高階主管,有很多工作的主導權…」我的想法 是,工作和玩一樣,要專心做,把它看成一回事,才不會無聊!否則,沒有工作是不無聊的。另外,到了高階主管當然有比較大的主導權,但這個職務可不是天掉下 來的,前面要付出很多努力。

  我真的並不會否定「貓型員工」的想法,我覺得,如果能追求幸福,都是好的。不過我認為,貓型員工還是可以試 著找到更多「工作的價值」並肯定它。「貓型員工」如果沒有因為找到一個喜歡的工作、從投入工作從中得到「好的報酬」,或得到工作可以「實現自我」的成就 感,就一定要從其他的地方獲得人生的幸福感。那會是什麼呢?值得我們好好研究!

  而面對愈來愈多「貓型員工」的主管們,我建議你們不要一 味的排斥「貓型員工」的想法、也不必否定「貓型員工」的作法。因為,在企業面臨變動也一樣無法照顧到員工的時代,「貓型員工」的「自我」,往往也是一種保 護自己的作法。「貓型員工」並非沒有生產力的人,他們程度不差,碰到該做的事,還是會努力完成。「貓型員工」只是比以前的人更想實現自我及擁有自由,但他 們的彈性思維,也可以是一種競爭力。

  不過,企業的線上主管及人資部門,勢必面臨更大員工忠誠度留任與否的考驗,於是,要如何面對未來人力資源的調度,及透過符合「貓型員工」期待制度的設計來留住可用的人才,應該是未來企業一定要面對的事情。

內容連載

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§內文1

<貓型員工的時代‧導讀>

你也可能是個「貓」型員工…..
相信各位讀者在看到這本書的書名之後,心裡肯定是頻頻生出問號!而對於這個議題感到掛心的讀者們,請大家不妨先針對以下問題做出回答。這其實是個簡單、無須花費太多腦力,便可輕鬆測出自己究竟有多「貓」的心理測驗。

「貓」型員工指數測驗
□ 與變得意氣風發相比,你比較希望能夠磨練看家本領。
□ 在工作上,你認為瞬間爆發力遠比續航力來得重要。
□ 認為喜歡玩樂勝於工作其實很正常。
□ 在團體當中,你對於和大家做出相同行為一事感到棘手。
□ 總覺得動不動就把「這都是為了公司」掛在嘴邊的人無法信賴。
□ 當有人告訴你必須學習「享受工作」時,你往往會覺得不知所措。
□ 你認為「珍重自己」其實是一件好事。
□ 你認為那些抱定「現在的年輕人多半沒有夢想」的大人,心態很奇怪。
□ 你認為憂心於「自我實現」之類的事情,其實根本沒有幫助。
□ 你認為在公司裡,主管多半是「在外沒地位,在家虎霸王」的類型。

解答:
9個以上 標準的貓型員工
請你不要猶疑,快去過你的貓型生活吧。
6~8個  潛在的貓型員工
其實你應該是屬於貓型的人,但是礙於職場上的各種現況,所以才沒這麼做。
3~5個  混血的貓型員工
你似乎擁有一部份的貓型元素,但今後是否能夠順利成為一名貓型員工,那還很難說。
0~2個  非貓型員工
應該這樣說,身為一名既平凡又認真的好員工,當你看著身邊那些貓型員工一直增加,你極有可能正在氣得牙癢癢的……。

結果如何?從你回答「YES」的數量裡,你應該可以獲知自己的「貓」型潛力有多高?
只不過,應該有不少人覺得,在還沒搞清楚所謂「貓型員工」的意思之前,這些理論應該也只是說心酸的吧。

總 之,我先針對這個概念簡單說明。所謂的貓型員工,與在昭和時期的日本企業中,被視為典型的「勤奮」印象,其實相去甚遠;但也因為異於積極實現自我的商場戰 士,所以這群員工其實正是難以捉摸的一群。比起崇尚所謂集團主義的人,這個族群的行動偏向以自我為中心,明明是個人才,卻又缺乏上進心。也就是若以動物來 做比喻,我們姑且只能以「貓」來形容他們。以下所列舉的幾項,即是他們大致上的常見特徵:

「貓」型員工的特徵
1‧與其捨己奉公,寧願珍重自我。
2‧雖然討厭汲汲營營,一旦碰上該做事的時候,他們還是會努力完成。
3‧認定可透過能力所及的事情來磨練本領。
4‧抱持「有魚可摸,活著就要玩」的生活態度。
5‧與了不起的目標相比,認為自己每天過得幸福比較重要。

如此一來,你腦海裡總該浮現出某些輪廓了吧?根據我觀察,「貓」型員工正以當今的年輕一代為中心,緩慢且穩定地增加中。而且,有些人對於一直以來的工作方式始終有所疑慮,因此就算是已屆中年之士,也有逐漸轉型成為「貓」型人的傾向。

在 這種嚴苛的經濟環境下,你或許會覺得這種論調其實很詭異,大家只聽過像「忠犬」一樣忠心耿耿的員工、像「老牛」一樣辛勤工作的員工,哪裡有什麼像「貓」一 樣的員工啊!可是,就在這種嚴苛的時期下,這種既堅毅強韌,並且飽含彈性的的工作方式,其實才是企業所需要的員工特質。近年來,看似持續增加的貓型員工 們,現在正他們發揮所長的好時候;而企業方面也被頻頻要求,必須給予員工更多的發揮空間。

「貓」型員工和當今職場氛圍確實相當格格不入。另一方面,感受到「貓」型員工正在不斷增加的非「貓」型員工們,也正在苦惱著彼此間的交流方式。

只是,貓型員工之所以開始受到矚目,其實是其道理存在,而這股潮流在今後依舊持續不變;也就是說,如果無法讓職場上的「貓」型員工發揮專長,企業經營恐怕將無以為繼了。

以下正是本書所想要談論的內容。
首先,我想針對「貓」型員工之所以增生的時空背景做討論,接著希望已是貓型員工的人,或是屬於潛在「貓」型員工的人,務必要有自信。對於這種「貓」型志向,大家只要把它想成是「從貓咪身上就能學到」即可。就某種意義上來說,這其實有點像「從貓咪身上學習工作技巧」的概念。

反之,我希望屬於非「貓」型員工的人也要讀讀這本書,藉以當作理解「貓」型員工特質的一小部分助力。如此一來方才不會在猛然驚覺下才發現,自己身邊盡是以年輕一群為中心的「貓型人」!為了幫助這一類型的讀者,我也針對「偽貓型員工」的辨識方式,做出論述。

如果你對於目前的工作方式有所疑慮,例如職場氣氛始終不佳、對於辦公室戀情的看法,意見分歧……等等,本書也請你認清這些源自內心的混亂根源,定睛正視你的下一步該往何處。

總之,我們就先把「貓型」當作一個關鍵字來看待吧!緊接著再連同今後的工作方式,一起做個更進一步的思考。

山本直人


在職場中,有一群人就像貓一樣充滿神祕感、難以捉摸,重視「自我實現」更甚於「享受工作」——這類型工作者就是俗稱的「貓型員工」。

表面上,貓型員工看似慵懶、沒幹勁,對於專注在一份工作上總是缺乏穩定性;但實際上,只要公司有需要,他們總能不負眾望地完成工作。身為貓型員工的主管,不妨參考以下3個領導技巧:

1.提供「玩沙場」:想要成功領導貓型員工,就必須先為他們規畫一個「玩沙場」,也就是將管理方式從原本的「企業理論」導向,轉為重視「員工感受」,讓貓型員工有機會做自己想做的事,並從中實現自我、獲得滿足。

例 如,有位貓型員工想從事商品開發工作,可是卻被分派到業務部,這時人資部門便可以將商品開發工作挪動一部份到業務部,並且指定該員工必須在規定期限內完 成,藉此讓貓型員工認清自己的能力。此外也可透過公司內部舉辦研習營、研討會,讓貓型員工模擬與體驗不同的工作情境,有助於他們發掘自我特質。不過,這種 「猶如玩沙子一般的工作」,理想的比例是每個人工作量的5%,最好不要超過20%。

「玩沙場」的另一個意義是,讓貓型員工自行尋找有能力完成的工作。在看似輕鬆的氣氛下,放縱貓型員工為所欲為,事實上是讓他們對工作懷有「緊張感」,進而了解自己的實力。

例 如,由於貓型員工多半只想做自己有興趣的工作,因此不妨給他們一點「功課」,從事難度較高的「玩沙遊戲」,讓他們有機會思考其他領域的新課題,有計畫地提 高貓型員工的專業水準。一旦成功,他們也會因此而更有自信,對組織而言也有加分作用;萬一事與願違,也有助於讓貓型員工停止自以為是。既歡樂又嚴苛的玩沙 場,正是成功領導貓型員工的首要條件。

2.不求回饋:如同大家都覺得貓不如狗來得熱情,貓型員工並非不懂得感謝主管或曾經協助他的同事,只是不熱衷於表達謝意,而且更看重的是自我實現與珍惜自己。

因此,身為貓型員工的主管,在伸出援手之後就要輕輕放下,千萬不要奢求有所回饋;除此之外,還要試著尊重他們偏好自由的工作型態,如果希望他們發揮力量,就要試著完全放手、絕不干涉。

貓型員工即使受到大家稱讚,也不見得會變得更忠誠;再加上他們對於名利與職位興趣缺缺,因此如果想刺激貓型員工的上進心,「無為而治」或許才是最有效的方法。此外,當貓型員工展現出具體的成果時,主管千萬要記得在下一次任務時,提高工作的難度。

3.相信自己,放縱他們:放任、寬鬆的管理方式較適用於貓型員工。例如,經理人最能
對貓型員工做到「相信自己(經理人)、放縱他人(貓型員工)」的程度,引導他們創造亮眼成績。

此外,對於貓型員工的小小失敗,不妨睜一隻眼、閉一隻眼,讓他們多嘗試幾次之後再說。

(本文取材自《貓型員工的時代》,寶鼎出版。)

New Franz Kafka papers discovered

Arts on the Air | 28.07.2010 | 16:30

More than 85 years after the death of famous Czech author Franz Kafka, new papers of his are being discovered. It is the result of a court case that has a plot worthy of the brilliant anxious writer himself.

Kafka penned some of the 20th century’s greatest novels and short-stories, centred on absurd nightmarish situations pitting a small man against a big brutal system, often in a courtroom.

Ten safety deposit boxes full of documents by Kafka and his friend and literary executor Max Brod are being opened on the orders of an Israeli court - -- four were opened in Switzerland last week, revealing illustrations and documents by Kafka -- with unconfirmed reports of a new short story, never before published, written in Kafka’s own hand.

Irris Makler reports from Jerusalem on the extraordinary personal story that kept these documents hidden for four decades.

法國視角下的社會學史與社會學思想


法國視角下的社會學史與社會學思想
 叢書名稱: 培文書系‧社會科學譯叢
 作  者: (法)卡班/(法)多爾蒂耶
 出版單位: 北京大學
 出版日期: 2010.06

本書旨在同時再現上述多樣性及多樣性的建構方式。第一部分介紹這門學科的創建經過。隨後劃出三個成果豐碩區域:美國,歐洲(意大利、德國、英國)和法國,展示當代社會學全貌。全書最後一章則闡述了最新的派別及其發展動向。


圖書目錄:

本書作者及分工
總序社會學軌跡
第一章 先驅者與奠基者
第一節孔德——“社會學”概念的“發明者”,實證主義之父,一種新宗教的始祖
 第二節 托克維爾與實行民主
 第三節 馬克思與社會學
第四節韋伯——現代性的社會學家
第五節1900~1910——法國社會學組織起來之時
第六節迪爾凱姆——現代社會學之父
第七節塔爾德——社會心理學的來源
第八節齊美爾——被埋沒的互動主義社會學之父
第九節現代性——社會學的一個傳統
第二章 美國社會學
第一節威廉·托馬斯和弗洛里安·茲納涅茨基——波蘭農民,一個移民的人生旅程
第二節拉扎斯菲爾德——調查社會影響
 第三節 帕森斯與“宏大理論”
 第四節 默頓
 第五節 互動主義社會學迅猛發展
 第六節 戈夫曼
第七節互動——社會生活網絡——霍華德貝克爾訪談錄
第八節希爾施曼——一位非正統的社會經濟學家
第九節社會動力學——貝爾訪談錄
第三章 歐洲社會學
第四章 法國社會學
第五章 社會學家們的新目光
附錄 關鍵術語

一脈文心

一脈文心

作  者: 陈乐民 著
  • 出版时间: 2010-4-1
 中国画重在内蕴,如果抽掉了“文”的内涵,无论多么逼真,也是失去了中国画里最可宝贵的东西。这最可宝贵的东西就是书卷气,董其昌说的“士气”,用现在的话来说,就叫做“知识分子气”。
                          ——陈乐民

内容简介

   陈乐民(1930-2008)是他那代人中有代表性的知识分子,历经社会变革,却始终没有放弃用良知和理性去思考中国现实,作为读书人,他以陋室为书 巢,将晚年的主要精力投入到对欧洲文明史,特别是启蒙时代以来的思想研究,不懈追问“欧洲何以为欧洲,中国何以为中国”。在考察欧洲公民社会和启蒙思想的 同时,他内心焦灼的是何以中国传统文化本身不能催生现代化。当陈先生投入到“中西之交,古今之异”的矛盾与思索时,拿起毛笔,用传统方式写字作画成了他的 最主要的消遣。或许正是这种独特的方式,让他真正保持了一种中国文人的自觉。

作者简介

陈 乐民(1930-2008),出生于民国时期的就是家庭,受过传统的蒙学教育,后辗转就读于燕京、中法、清华、北大四座大学。1953年从北京大学西语系 毕业,被分配到中国人民保卫世界和平委员会工作,70年代初转到“对外友协”欧洲处,80年代初调到中国社会科学院西欧研究所,曾任中国社会科学院荣誉学 部委员、欧洲研究所研究员,并担任所长之职。晚年专注于欧洲学研究,出版有《欧洲文明十五讲》、《欧洲文明的进程》、《冷眼向洋——百年沉浮启示录》(主 编并作者之一)、《对话欧洲——公民社会与启蒙精神》(与史傅德对话,晨枫编译)、《启蒙札记》、《文心文事》、《徜徉集》等著作。写书作画是他最大的业 余爱好。

目录

编者的话
春蚕到死丝未尽
画里画外的父亲
艺海留踪
 童年艺趣忆
 人生行旅中的“中转站”
 前贤可畏
 中国文化名人手稿馆观后感
 董其昌与南北宗
 倪云林和余叔岩
 诗中哲意
 杜甫题书画诗
 郑板桥论画竹
 王羲之
 董其昌
 关于四山摩崖
 《唐碑百选》见精神
 关于“淡墨”
 于右任楹联
 一九九八年自作七律诗(读时文有感)
 病亦有乐
 日记摘抄:论诗画和文风
友人追忆
 永忆江湖归白发欲回天地入扁舟
 集中西“绅士”于一身
 一片潇湘落笔端
 岁岁年年满树花
 自得之趣
 条案之痛
 一身跨两代

书摘插图

  艺海留踪
  童年艺趣忆
我好像很小的时候就喜欢画画儿。也许是七八岁吧。那时候,就在买茶叶的包装纸上画。“张一元”茶叶店的包装纸十分白净光洁,不印有字号的背面正好画画儿。每次家里买回茶叶,包装纸都给我留着。
后来发现家里藏有一套石印的《芥子园画谱》,就照着画,画石头、画树,放学回来就画。《芥子园画谱》是我的蒙师。那时,中山公园常有画展,只要有机会,也去看。
母亲见我那么喜欢画,就出钱送我去“四友画社”去学。所谓四友,就是王仁山、杨惺坡、常斌卿、陈林斋。王画山水,杨画花卉,常画走兽,陈画人物。“四友画 社”就设在陈家。我喜欢山水,就从王仁山学。同时也是因为王既是邻居,又都是浙江籍京官的后裔,是我的父辈。王家比我家阔气,在北京家大业大,陈家住的就 是王家的房子。四友中,陈是唯一靠卖画为生的,最清贫,王仁山等常接济他。杨惺坡是个胖子,性格最爽,年纪最长,王等呼之为“大哥”。我印象中他似乎“学 问”最大。常斌卿人最老实,不言不语,他的画儿,我印象已不深了,只记得画马学郎世宁。
我从王仁山学山水画,但并不佩服他,觉得他的画太“死”,只是学“基本功”。王仁山师法清代王石谷,规规矩矩。王仁山只教怎么画,从不讲“画史”、“画论”。这方面的知识是靠我自己东看西看学的。
  ……

2010年7月28日 星期三

Stone Age Economics石器時代經濟學

Stone Age economics - Google 圖書結果

Marshall David Sahlins - 2004 - Social Science - 348 頁
This edition includes a new foreword by the author.

石器時代經濟學 Stone Age Economics


薩 林斯是當代人類學大師,確立了人類學的新風範。他在本書中指出︰資本主義的金錢理性,與斐濟人、特羅布里恩德島民的物質實踐是殊途同歸,只是更大文化價值 體系的結果。特羅布里恩德島民將一半收成送給了姐妹的丈夫,被我們認為是浪費時間和精力;但當我們逛商店時,選擇魚還是買回肉,其實也是一種無意識的習 慣。所以,無論是西方還是非西方,理性只是文化的一種表述。理性與文化絕不是對立的。


作者簡介︰馬歇爾‧薩林斯(Marshall Sahlins,1930—),出生于美國猶太人家庭,先後在密歇根大學和哥倫比亞大學受教育,從博士論文研究開始,他對非西方世界產生興趣,並專門研究 過太平洋島嶼的土著文化,進而反思西方世界各種觀念的缺失。1956年至1973年執教于密歇根大學,1973年以來任芝加哥大學人類學教授。他的主要著 作包括︰《石器時代經濟學》(1972)、《文化與實踐理由》(1972)以及《歷史之島》(1985)等,這些著作對晚近西方人類學乃至整個社會科學領 域都產生了較大的影響。

詳細資料

top
  • 叢書系列:學術前沿
  • 規格:精裝 / 396頁 / 14cmX21cm / 普級 / 單色 / 初版
  • 出版地:大陸

目錄

top
新版前言
致謝
中文版出版說明
導論
第一章 原初豐裕社會
第二章 家戶生產模式︰低度生產的結構
第三章 家戶生產模式之二︰高度的生產
第四章 禮物之靈
第五章 關于原始交換的社會學
附錄A 互惠與親屬關系距離部分的注釋
附錄B 互惠與親屬關系等級部分的注釋
附錄C 互惠與財富部分的注釋
第六章 交換價值與原始貿易中的社會交往
參考書目
主要人名、地名、民族譯名表

2010年7月26日 星期一

Publisher: learn how customers can search inside this book. Conversations With Casals

卡薩爾斯的一生──大師訪談錄

卡薩爾斯的一生──大師訪談錄 PABLO CASALS CUENLA SU VIDA - Conversaciones con el maestro

作者:Jose Maria Corredor/著
  • 譯者:梅玫
    出版社:

    出版日期:1995年10月10日卡薩爾斯的信──代序引 言托馬斯‧曼的一封信

    童 年

    學習的歲月

    旅行、音樂會、朋友…

    指揮、卡薩爾斯樂團

    三個被遺忘的大師

    J.S.巴哈

    昨天和今天的音樂(Ⅰ)

    昨天和今天的音樂(Ⅱ)

    關於演奏

    從抗議到流放

    破滅的希望

    普拉德音樂節

    偉大和孤獨

    大地上的和平

  • Architecture As Art: An Esthetic Analysis

    Architecture As Art: An Esthetic Analysis (Icon editions)

    Architecture As Art: An Esthetic Analysis (Icon editions) [Paperback]

    Stanley Abercrombie (Author)

    中文 建築之藝術觀 封面聯原作者都找不到


    奢侈与资本主义 /Luxury Fever:

    奢華狂潮 Luxury Fever



    隨著人民所得不斷提高,一些超級富豪揮金如土的現象,在各個國家不斷出現,也逐漸引起注意。因為《贏家通吃的社會》一書而享譽學界的學者羅伯特‧法蘭克,推出奢華狂潮一書,對整個資本主義發展提出嚴厲的批判和反省。

       法蘭克引用許多調查和數據,顯示今日美國民眾的過度消費,實在已達到驚人的程度。相較而言,美國這十年的經濟成長率並未提高,為什麼近年卻出現這樣的現 象?原因是收入金字塔最高的那一個族群,競相花費令人無法想像的大筆金錢。此外,股票飆漲造就了許多一夕新富,加上信用卡公司等企業用各種行銷手法,刺激 消費,鼓勵貸款,更加強了這種現象。

      由於奢華熱潮越演越烈,近來反而出現一股反撲現象。一些提倡簡單生活的書紛紛出現,鼓吹大家讓工作少一點,行程表鬆一點,負債少一點,多一點時間給家人、社區和大自然。

       但法蘭克認為,這種自力救濟的行動,對扭轉整個奢華社會的大趨勢是不夠的。要解決這個問題,法蘭克建議政府課徵奢侈消費稅,來遏阻那些消費在前10%或 20%人士的消費。他認為,如果政府一味地對高所得者課徵嚴苛稅率,將使人不願努力賺錢,整體生產力大減。相反地,對那些奢侈的消費活動課稅,卻可以鼓勵 儲蓄,減少太多不必要的花費。

      不論法蘭克提出的課徵奢侈消費稅方案是否可行,在過度生產、過度行銷、過度消費的社會裡,本書提供了一個刺激人們反思的重要聲音。





    bookjacket


    Luxury Fever:
    Money and Happiness in an Era of Excess
    Robert H. Frank

    Paper | 2010 | $18.95 / £9.95
    336 pp. | 5 1/2 x 8 1/2

    Shopping Cart | Reviews | Table of Contents

    Google full text of this book:


    The turn of the twenty-first century witnessed a spectacular rise in gross consumption. With the super-rich setting the pace, everyone spent furiously in a desperate attempt to keep up. As cars and houses grew larger and more expensive, the costs were enormous--not only monetarily but also socially. Consumers spent more time at work and less time with their family and friends; they saved less money and borrowed more.

    In this book, Robert Frank presents the first comprehensive and accessible account of these financial choices. Frank uses scientific evidence to demonstrate how these spending patterns have not made us happier or healthier. Luxury Fever offers an exit from the rat race, suggesting ways to curb the culture of excess and restore true value to our lives.

    Robert H. Frank is the Henrietta Johnson Louis Professor of Management and professor of economics at Cornell University, as well as an economics columnist for the New York Times. His books include The Winner-Take-All Society (with Philip Cook), What Price the Moral High Ground?, The Economic Naturalist, and Principles of Economics (with Ben Bernanke).

    Reviews:

    "Luxury Fever is an important book. . . . It's admirable that an economist makes use of the research of behavioral biologists and evolutionary psychologists to explain why consumers spend as they do."--USA Today

    "Frank's analysis should be just as interesting to those who do not share his political position as to those who do."--Samuel Brittan, Times Literary Supplement

    "One does not have to be the kind of person who complains about fat-cat City salaries to wonder whether certain wealthy people are not, on the one hand, rich beyond utility, and spending their money on things that no sane consumer needs, on the other. Robert Frank's thoughtful study of conspicuous consumption . . . has a dreadful fascination."--Sunday Times (London)

    "The shop-till-you-drop, 'retail therapy' culture may have become more dominant in the last few years. . . . But are we really any happier for it? One person who thinks we are not is Robert Frank . . . whose new book, Luxury Fever, has been causing a bit of a stir. . . . The burst of consumerism in the U.S. . . . gives a new bite to these well-rehearsed concerns."--The Independent (London)

    Table of Contents:

    Acknowledgments ix
    1. Money Well Spent? 1
    2. The Luxury Spending Boom 14
    3. Why Now? 3
    4. The Price of Luxury 45
    5. Does Money Buy Happiness? 6
    6. Gains That Endure 7
    7. Our Forgotten Future 94
    8. Excellent, Relatively Speaking 107
    9. Why Context and Position Are So Important 122
    10. Smart for One, Dumb for All 146
    11. Understanding Conspicuous Consumption 15
    12. Self Help? 17
    13. Other Failed Remedies 19
    14. Luxury Without Apology 20
    15. Equity Versus Efficiency: The Great Trade-Off? 227
    16. We Can't Afford It? 25
    17. Cash on the Table 266
    Endnotes 281
    References 295
    Index 317

    Another Princeton book by Robert H. Frank:

    -----
    可笑而讀之的書

    奢侈与资本主义

    奢侈与资本主义


    作者: (德)桑巴特 1922
    译者: 王燕平 / 侯小河
    ISBN: 9787208054363
    页数: 271
    定价: 18.0
    出版社: 上海人民出版社
    丛书: 袖珍经典·世纪人文系列丛书
    装帧: 平装
    出版年: 2005-05

    简介 · · · · · ·

      本书主要阐述了资本主义形成过 程中财富积聚和过度消费现象。城市的扩展、王室宫廷的享乐之风引起了道德价值的变化:对性的放纵,宫廷中国王大臣的情妇。高级妓女的出现给整个社会带来了 挥霍无度与追求奢侈的习气。作者对有关现象作了详细的研究,列举、分析、比较了大量的统计数据、揭露了资本主义初期社会的隐蔽部分,被称为是一本“充满趣 味而且大胆的书“。它使读者对奢侈与资本主义有了一个直观的认识。本书为世纪人文系列丛书袖珍经典中的一种。

    目录 · · · · · ·

    第一章 新社会
    原始材料和其他文献
    一、 宫廷
    二、 中产阶级的财富
    三、 新贵族
    第二章 城市
    原始材料和其他文献
    一、16、17以及18世纪的城市
    二、城市的起源及内部结构
    三、18世纪的城市理论
    第三章 爱情的世俗化
    原始材料和其他文献
    一、 非法爱情的胜利
    二、 高级妓女
    第四章 奢侈的发展
    原始材料和其他文献
    一、 奢侈的定义和性质
    二、 宫廷
    三、 宫廷的模仿者:骑士和暴发户
    四、 女人的胜利
    第五章 资本主义――奢侈的产物
    一、 对这一问题正确和错误的表述
    二、 奢侈与贸易
    三、 奢侈与农业
    四、 奢侈与工业
    附录:《奢侈与资本主义》英译本导言

    2010年7月25日 星期日

    剑桥插图德国史




    剑桥插图德国史

    简介 · · · · · ·

      德国历史中包含了种种极端化的矛盾:一个孕育了路德、古滕贝格、巴赫、歌德等科学和文化巨人的国度,为什么对自己的民族和文化特质如此困惑和忧虑?这样一个拥有高度文明和先进文化的民族,怎么会委身于纳粹党人统治下,对欧洲犹太人实施种族灭绝?一个曾委身于纳粹主义的国度,如今怎么会变成欧洲迈向后民族主义之路的主发动机?
       著名德国史专家马丁·基钦在本书中运用富于洞察力的笔触,深入而透彻地探讨了德意志历史的复杂性,为解读上述难题开启了一扇门户。正是从历史的高度,作者揭示了一个民主而繁荣的德国,对于欧洲乃至全世界的巨大影响。
       《剑桥插图德国史》是一部格局恢宏、旁征博引的著作,几乎每一页都配有精美的插图,其中包括多幅首次与读者见面的珍贵照片。对于重要的人物、地点、事件和问题辟出专页矛以介绍。本书在德国史研究领域具有举足轻重的地位,并对构建后民族主义时代的欧... (展开全部)
      

    作者简介 · · · · · ·

      马丁·基钦,加拿大西蒙·弗雷泽大学历史系教授,著名德国史专家,德国史研究领域的学术带头人。著有多部研究19世纪、20世纪德国历史问题的书籍,《战时纳粹德国》、《1815-1914年的德国政治经济》、《悄无声息的专制:1916-1918年的德国最高统帅部》、《1890-1914年的德国军官团》等,都被列为研究德国史的必读节目。

    目录 · · · · · ·

    导论
    第一章 德国史的起源
    第二章 从奥托王朝到萨利安王朝
    第三章 霍亨斯陶芬王朝与中世纪后期
    第四章 宗教改革运动
    第五章 反宗教改变与三十年战争
    第六章 十八世纪
    第七章 改革、复兴与复辟
    第八章 德国的统一
    第九章 德意志帝国
    第十章 魏玛共和国
    第十一章 纳粹德国
    第十二章 1945年后的德国
    第十三章 德国的重新统一
    尾章
    又名: The Cambridge Illustrated History of Germany
    译者: 赵辉 / 徐芳 / 陈叙 校
    作者: 基钦
    ISBN: 9787501225347
    页数: 349
    定价: 48.0
    出版社: 世界知识出版社

    看見紅色 : 憤怒 / Nicholas Humphrey著; 梁永安譯

    書名看見紅色 : 憤怒 / 尼古拉斯.漢弗萊(Nicholas Humphrey)著; 梁永安譯
    主要作者漢弗萊 (Humphrey, Nicholas)
    Humphrey, Nicholas
    出版項臺北縣新店市 : 立緖文化出版 臺北市 : 紅螞蟻行銷代理, 民99[2010]
    版本項初版


    Seeing red a study in consciousness

    2010年7月23日 星期五

    Drucker on leadership : new lessons from the father of modern management / William A. Cohen ;

    鬼扯


    書名 Drucker on leadership : new lessons from the father of modern management / William A. Cohen ; foreword by Frances Hesselbein
    主要作者 Cohen, William A., 1937-
    出版項 San Francisco : Jossey-Bass, c2010
    版本項 1st ed

    Foreword / by Frances Hesselbein -- Introduction: Peter Drucker and leadership -- The leader's role in shaping the organization's future -- The fundamental decision: determining the business of the organization -- The process: creating a strategic plan -- Look, listen, and analyze: the information the leader needs -- Methodology: developing Drucker-based strategies -- Taking action: what it takes to implement your plan -- Ethics and personal integrity -- Drucker's views on business ethics -- Effective leadership and personal integrity -- The seven deadly sins of leadership -- Effective leadership and corporate social responsibility -- The responsibility of a corporation: first, do no harm -- The military: Drucker's model organization -- Leadership lessons from Xenophon pp.121-31 -- Training and developing leaders -- Promotion and staffing -- The heart of leadership -- Leadership for upper management -- Motivation and leadership -- Leadership style as a motivator -- Motivating to peak performance -- Charisma as a motivator -- The volunteer paradigm -- The marketing model of leadership -- Applying marketing to leadership -- Applying segmentation to leadership -- Applying positioning to the organization and the leader -- The role of influence and persuasion on strategy and tactics -- Epilogue: Drucker's legacy -- Notes -- About the author -- Index
    摘要 "A fresh look at vital lessons from "The Father of Modern Management"-exploring Peter Drucker's teachings on leadershipAs we approach what would have been his 100th birthday, the late Peter Drucker's management principles continue to be studied and applied by managers all over the world. Though many seek his lessons on the central element of management-leadership-he in fact wrote relatively little under this actual subject heading. Now, for the first time, William A. Cohen, a former student of Drucker's and a leadership expert and author in his own right, brings together Drucker's reflections on leadership, culled from his 40 books and hundreds of articles. Explaining why there is so little know about Drucker's ideas on leadership, this book is a must-read for students and fans alike looking to lead better in today's world"--Provided by publisher

    Statistics on the table : the history of statistical concepts and methods / Stephen M. Stigler

    書名 Statistics on the table : the history of statistical concepts and methods / Stephen M. Stigler
    主要作者 Stigler, Stephen M
    出版項 Cambridge, Mass. : Harvard University Press, 1999


    館藏地 索書號 條碼 狀態 說明
    總圖4F科 技資料區 QA276.15 S755 1999 [鄰 近架位館藏] 2129598 到期 09-13-10

    稽核項 ix, 488 p. : ill. ; 25 cm
    附註 Includes bibliographical references (p. 433-475) and index
    內容 Karl Pearson and the Cambridge economists -- The average man is 168 years old -- Jevons as statistician -- Jevons on the King-Davenant Law of Demand -- Francis Ysidro Edgeworth, statistician -- Galton and identification by fingerprints -- Stochastic simulation in the nineteenth century -- The history of statistics in 1933 -- Regression toward the mean -- Statistical concepts in psychology -- Apollo Mathematicus -- The dark ages of probability -- John Craig and the probability of history -- Stigler's law of eponymy -- Who discovered Bayes's Theorum? -- Daniel Bernoulli, Leonhard Euler, and maximum likelihood -- Gauss and the invention of least squares -- Cauchy and the witch of Agnesi -- Karl Pearson and degrees of freedom -- Statistics and standards -- The trial of the Pyx -- Normative terminology / with W.H. Kruskal
    ISBN/價格 0674836014 (alk. paper)
    標題 Mathematical statistics -- History

    威廉斯:马太·亨利传

    威廉斯:马太·亨利传

    [日期: 2010-05-20 ] 来源: 作者:


    书名:马太·亨利传

    又名:The Life of Matthew Henry

    作者:陈凤 / 梁曙东

    译者:[美] 约翰·毕克顿·威廉斯(J. B. Williams)

    定价:32.0

    页数:326

    装帧:平装

    出版年:2010-05

    出版社:华夏出版社

    ISBN:9787508056500

    丛书:新教著名人物传记译丛

    内容简介

    马太·亨利(1662 – 1714),著名清教徒,也是最伟大的解经家之一。被称为“清教徒解经王子”。其作品是清教徒圣经注释成就的最高峰。他的著作《马太·亨利圣经注释》,至 为敬虔、简明和纯正,既具有启发性又庄重,既简洁又可信,闪耀着比喻,有丰富的类比,充满了例证,引人深思。在出版三百年后,仍在英语世界广为阅读。
       马太·亨利出生于不从国教的清教徒牧者家庭。敬虔的父母使马太亨利从小便受到纯正的真理教导。他曾前往格雷律师学院学习法律。1687年退学,接受不从 国教的长老制的按立,担任切斯特的牧师。忠心牧会,并笔耕不辍。1712年迁至哈尼克服侍。两年后,在外出服侍返回的旅途中,死于突然中风。
       本传记广泛引用了马太·亨利本人的书信、讲章和日记,为读者描述了一个重视圣经、品格敬虔、忠心事奉的主人公形象,本传记被公认为是同类传记中的权威。并 附录《马太·亨利圣经注释·约翰福音》1至3章。

    目录

    第1章敬虔的家庭
      
      亨利先生的出生——教育——可怕的疾病 ——蒙恩记录——自我省察以及真恩典的证据——献身侍奉工作的意愿——习惯
      
      第 2章求学之路(一)
      
       转到杜立德先生的书院——关于波希尔先生的叙述——书院同学对亨利先生品格的评价——返回阔橡树农庄——蒙恩记录——他的熟人
      
       第3章求学之路(二)
      在格雷律师学院学习法律——他的习惯——来往信函——巴克斯特牧师受审——前往监狱看望巴克斯特先生 ——读书——学习法语——与家人之间的通信——安息日——至伊里奇先生的信
      
      第4章接受不从国教的按立
      回到阔橡 树农庄——开始讲道 ——访问切斯特——收到前往切斯特侍奉的邀请——返回伦敦——得到国家颁发的讲道许可证——被迫切要求留在伦敦——从格雷律师学院退学——接受按立前的自 省——考虑是否在国教接受按立——决定坚持不从国教运动——信仰宣告——接受按立——返回阔橡树农庄
      
      第5章婚姻与家庭
       在切斯特定居 ——信仰自由——他在切斯特的社会生活情况——哈德维尔夫妇——与哈德维尔小姐结婚——亨利夫人去世——女儿受洗——沃伯顿夫妇——与沃伯顿小姐结婚—— 开始写日记——另一个女儿出生——表明他的意愿——1691年结束——他的小女儿去世——另外一个女儿出生——女儿去世——葬礼上的讲道——对1693年 的回顾
      
      第6章行过死荫的幽谷
      亨利先生平安幸福的生活——沃伯顿先生去世——腓利•亨利先生去世——对此事的反 应——1696年生日日记——以敬虔的心结束1696年——他的妹妹雷德福夫人和赫尔顿夫人去世——致萨维奇夫人的信——1697年生日日记——1698 年开始——访问伦敦 ——1698年生日日记——他的女儿安去世——1699年生日日记——哈维牧师去世——以敬虔的心结束1699年——照料他妹妹与妹夫雷德福夫妇的遗孤
       
      第 7章变迁:拒绝?接受?
      一年敬虔的开始——1701年开始时的委身——1701年生日日记——1701年结束—— 1702年开始——1702年生日日记——1702年结束——1703年开始——1703年生日日记——1703年结束——1704年开始
      
      第8章岁首、年终及生日时的日记摘录(一)
      伦敦之行——听约翰•豪讲道——亨利先生总体健康状况良好——突然患病—— 1705年开始——1705年生日日记——1705年结束 ——1706年开始——1706年生日日记——1707年开始——母亲去世——1707年生日日记——1707年结束——1708年开始——1708年生 日日记
      
      第9章岁首、年终及生日时的日记摘录(二)
      远方的教会邀请亨利先生去工作——1708年至1709年敬 虔的委身——唐先生的来信——亨利先生的困惑——咨询卡拉迈(Calamy)博士——卡拉迈博士的来信——引人注目的申请的特点——1709年生日纪念 ——再次受到哈克尼(Hackney)的邀请——他决定离开切斯特——他离开的理由——1711年的生日——他的困惑和苦恼依然存在
      
       第10章在切斯特的侍奉(一)
      关于亨利先生辞去在切斯特的侍奉工作的说明,包括前面所叙述的从1687年到1712年的全部时期
       
      第11章在切斯特的侍奉(二)
      去监狱传福音——不从国教者的秘密按立仪式——关于牧职按立的论述——为众教会的事挂心—— 不屈不挠为主工作
      
      第12章最后的岁月
      开始在哈克尼劳作——不知疲倦地努力工作——按立克拉克先生——1712 年的生日——1713年开始——关注年轻人——资助慈善学校——健康状况恶化——访问切斯特——因病休假——康复——1713年生日——他生命中最后一年 1714年的敬虔开端——公共事务——最后的日记——切斯特之行—— 他在那里度过的最后一个安息日——启程前往伦敦——途中病倒——去世——葬礼——葬礼上的讲道
      
      第13章亨利先生的品格
       一个爱家的男人——让家庭成为祭坛——社交圈子中的亨利
      第1节辛勤劳作和惜时如金
      第2节基督徒之爱——心胸宽广的不从国教 者——坦率、节制、谨守
      第 3节仁爱之心,不从国教,但投身公共事务、对国家忠诚
      第4节谦卑,抵挡来自称赞的诱惑
       第5节在试炼中的耐心顺服
      第6节敬虔的习惯:甜蜜的祈祷、思想,谨守主日
      
      第14章天赋、学识和主要作品亨利 先生的写作生涯——亨利的一些神学观点——《马太•亨利〈圣经〉注释》的写作风格
      
      第15章同奔天路的朋友们
      简 要记述亨利先生的一些朋友和邻居,尤其是比他先离世的牧师朋友
      
      附录《马太•亨利圣经注释•约翰福音》一至三章

    2010年7月22日 星期四

    Pericles, Prince of Tyre

    讀前後各一幕

    Shakespeare, William (.TXT). Pericles, Prince of Tyre. Salt Lake City, UT: Project Gutenberg. http://www.gutenberg.net/etext/1537. Retrieved 2008-10-09.

    R. A. Fisher, the life of a scientist by Joan Fisher Box




    2010/7/22
    昨天攜回昔日複製本 今天讀一章

    R. A. Fisher, the life of a scientist
    Joan Fisher Box.

    Published 1978 by Wiley in New York .
    Written in English.

    Edition Notes

    n class="sansserif">

    "Bibliography of R. A. Fisher": p. 486-503.
    Includes bibliographical references and index.

    Series
    Wiley series in probability and mathematical statistics

    Classifications

    Dewey Decimal Class
    519.5/092/4, B
    Library of Congress
    QA29.F57 B68

    The Physical Object

    Pagination
    xii, 512 p., [13] leaves of plates :
    Number of pages
    512

    R A Fisher: the life of a scientist Preface

    In 1978 Joan Fisher Box, R A Fisher's daughter and the wife of the statistician George E P Box, wrote a biography of her father. It was published by John Wiley. We reproduce below the Preface to this book:-

    Sir Ronald Fisher was my father. This might seem to disqualify me as his biographer, and I certainly had no notion of becoming one when, 5 years after his death, I began to ask his friends and colleagues for their recollections of him. I thought only to preserve the personal record before it was irretrievable. Then, just as Fisher's discourse used to fascinate his hearers in his lifetime, so the flow of his ideas began to fascinate me. His life took form as one continuous discourse from Fisher's lips. It had the vitality of his immense pleasure in the process of thinking, the play of ideas, the solution of puzzles. I recognized that, having known the man, I knew Fisher even as an undergraduate, when he stated the thesis of his life. From this starting point, I began to follow what, being his, was a logical and coherent argument, full of complexities, subtleties, and intriguing subplots. His conversation was not always easy to follow, but it was always fresh and stimulating. It is my hope that the reader of this biography also may take pleasure in the unfolding of a brilliant mind.

    Fisher was an idealist, committed to the establishment of truth and the advancement of mankind. Born in 1890 in East Finchley, London, his mathematical ability was quickly apparent. His biological interests became important during his schooldays at Harrow. He accepted Charles Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection, and he shared Francis Galton's concern that selective effects in society should tend to improve the biological inheritance of Man. However, the scientific facts were not well established: the nature of human inheritance was a matter of debate between geneticists and biometricians; Darwin's evolutionary theory had largely given way to theories involving genetic mutation, and most biologists assumed the effects of selection to be negligible. Above all, the means of establishing the truth of such matters on a firm, quantitative basis were practically nonexistent. So, while still an undergraduate, Fisher began his lifework on the quantification of the variable phenomena of biology; he began his services to the eugenic movement and his involvement with the elucidation of genetical and evolutionary questions.

    Rejected for national service in World War I because of poor eyesight, he taught in public schools for 5 years. During this period he made two scientific advances, notable both for the method and the result: using an argument from n-dimensional geometry, he found the distribution of the correlation coefficient; and, using variance components, he demonstrated that human inheritance was entirely consistent with Mendelian principles. In 1919 he was hired as statistician at Rothamsted Experimental Station, where the work he had already done was immediately applicable. He continued investigations into distributions of statistics which, like the correlation coefficient, were in common use; with small experimental samples, it was essential to know the theoretical distribution in assessing the actual results. At the same time, he responded to the stimulus of actual problems in the field by inventing statistical methods that used all the information in the data to draw correct inferences, and he conceived the whole idea of the design of experiments, by which to gain fuller and more precise information for a given amount of experimental effort. He laid the foundations, coined the language, and developed the methodology of modern biometry.

    During the 1930s the influence of his statistical work spread throughout the English-speaking world, and often beyond, so that, after World War II, with the formation of the International Biometric Society in 1947, a new field of scientific research was recognized. As a result of the introduction of quantitative methods and the refinements of inductive reasoning for which Fisher had been primarily responsible, a transformation had taken place in the very way a biologist conceived of his research.

    Meanwhile, in 1917, Fisher was married to Ruth E Guinness, younger daughter of Dr Henry Grattan Guinness, a preacher and evangelist who, at the time of his death in 1915, had been head of the missionary training college and the mission his father had started. The Fishers read together in the history of civilizations, noting evidences that the decay of past civilizations had resulted from the pattern of social selection arising in a moneyed economy. Fisher advocated practical measures by which to reduce this deleterious selection in contemporary society and thus save Western Civilization from the fate of its predecessors. Eugenic practice accorded with theory and, for the Fishers, started with the investment of their own physical and economic resources in the next generation. Eventually they raised a family of two sons and six daughters.

    In addition, at home Fisher pursued work in population genetics that led to his formulation of The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection (1930) and to his election in 1933 to the Chair of Eugenics at University College, London, where he initiated genetical researches, in particular, in human blood group serology. In 1943 he moved to Cambridge University as Balfour Professor of Genetics. Combining genetical work in the laboratory with evolutionary field work, in collaboration with E B Ford, he demonstrated the reality of the effects of natural selection and developed statistical methods by which they could be measured. He also enjoyed the more theoretical aspects of his work, the theory of inbreeding arising from his work with mice, and the combinatorial aspects of his work with polyploid plants. Logical difficulties in the theory of inductive inference continued to engage him after his retirement in 1957. He died in Adelaide in 1962.

    Given its subject, this biography is necessarily scientific. However, I have not assumed that the reader is familiar with any of the sciences involved, and I have avoided mathematical elaboration. The symbols of mathematics are used mainly to clarify logical connections necessary to the argument. I hope that any reader prepared to follow through what is sometimes fairly stiff argument may understand its substance without difficulty. At the same time I have tried to make the account technically correct.

    My ignorance of mathematics and statistics would have prevented me from attempting the present work without the help of my husband, George E P Box. Patiently, he has expounded and discussed statistical matters with me and interpreted the mathematics. He has read and corrected several drafts of the manuscript. The errors are mine; much of the clarity of the statistical discussion I owe to him.

    I have greatly benefited from the publication of the Collected Papers of R A Fisher (Volumes 1-5), J H Bennett, Ed., University of Adelaide, 1971-1973. These comprise 294 of Fisher's contributions to the scientific literature between 1912 and 1962, with amendments or prefaces Fisher had made in his lifetime, the biographical memoir written by K Mather and F Yates, and a very complete bibliography (included in this volume). Nearly half the collected papers are mainly mathematical or statistical, and most of the others concern topics in genetics, evolution, or eugenics. The broad scope of many of the papers, however, makes any grouping according to subject matter unsatisfactory, and the papers have been arranged chronologically according to year of publication, with the more statistical ones placed ahead of the more genetical. In his Preface, the editor writes, "it is hoped that with the material presented in this way, readers will be better able to appreciate the extraordinary diversity of Fisher's contributions to science and to trace their overall development and interrelationships." The Collected Papers constitute a resource no student of Fisher's work can afford to be without. In this volume, therefore, references in the text are given numerically as they appear in the Collected Papers.

    I am deeply indebted to a number of Fisher's friends for their help. Prof J Henry Bennett gave me access to the Fisher papers at Adelaide University and put every facility at my disposal during my 3 months with the Genetics Department there in 1970. He has read and commented on the manuscript, has checked quotations from the papers in Adelaide, and brought source material to my attention. Professor E B Ford recorded for me a priceless account of his long and close association with Fisher and has read and commented on relevant portions of the manuscript. Prof G A Barnard arranged a valuable series of seminars on Fisher's statistical papers during our stay at Essex University in the academic year 1970-1971. He has commented on my discussion of scientific inference. Prof D J Finney has read and commented on a draft of the early chapters, and Prof J F Crow on the chapter on the evolution of dominance.

    Many have contributed their own recollections, written records, photographs, and even personal correspondence with Fisher. For such generous assistance I wish to express my gratitude to the following: A E Brandt, Sir Edward Bullard, L L Cavalli Sforza, the late E A Cornish, Gertrude M Cox, A W F Edwards, D J Finney, T N Hoblyn, S B Holt, E Irving, Sir Bernard Keen, R T Leslie, the late P C Mahalanobis and Mrs Mahalanobis, Besse B Mauss, J R Morton, E S Pearson, R R Race, Stuart A Rice, P R Rider, W A Roach, S K Runcorn, the late H Fairfield Smith, Sir Gerard Thornton, Helen N Turner and F Yates. I thank Rothamsted Experimental Station, the Agricultural Research Council, the Genetical Society and the Royal Society for supplying information from their records at my request and K Mather for permission to quote from his contribution to the Royal Society's Biographical memoir of R A Fisher.

    Special thanks are due to my aunt, Geraldine Heath (Gudruna), for an account she alone could have given of Fisher during the years 1910 - 1920. The clarity of her perceptions and memories illuminates the pages of the long letters, often hand-written, in which in her mid-eighties she recalled Fisher and commented on my account of him in the first two chapters of this volume. Above all, I thank my mother for opening the gates of sometimes painful memories on my behalf and for her full and enthusiastic discussion of my questions.

    JOAN FISHER BOX

    Madison, Wisconsin
    February 1978





    藏儀時悼文引
    http://www.catholic.org.tw/bible/
    德訓篇 44章

    第四十四章

    讚揚列祖導言

    1. 現在讓我們來讚揚那些著名的偉人,和我們歷代的祖先:
    2. 上主在他們身上,作出許多光耀的事,自太古就對他們,顯示了自己的偉大。
    3. 他們中,有在自己國內為王的,有因自己的能幹而名聞天下的;有因自己的明智而作參議的,有因自己的先知任務而明察一切的;
    4. 有因自己的決策和明智,而作當時民眾領袖的;有以自己賢明的訓言,教導民眾的學者;
    5. 有因其所長,創作樂曲的,有寫作敘事詩的;
    6. 有的是富而有權勢的人,有的愛好美術,在自己家中,過著安靜的生活。
    7. 這一切人,在自己的民族中,歷代受人尊敬,他們在世時就被人誇讚。
    8. 他們中,有的已留名於後世,使人讚頌不已;
    9. 有的卻沒有留下紀念,他們死了,好像他們沒有存在過;他們生了,好像沒有生過;他們的子孫也同他們一樣。
    10. 但我所要稱揚的人,都是寬大為懷的人,他們的義舉,不會被人遺忘;
    11. 他們的善行與子孫同存,
    12. 他們的後裔,保有這善行的產業;他們的子孫履行盟約,
    13. 他們的子女,因了他們,也是如此:子子孫孫,永世常存;他們的光榮,決不會泯滅;
    14. 他們的遺體必被人安葬,名譽必留於永世;
    15. 民眾必稱述他們的智慧,集會必傳揚他們的美德。
    16. 讚揚古聖祖

    17. 哈諾客悅樂了上主,故此被提升天,成為後世悔改的模範。
    18. 諾厄被共認是齊全正義的人,而在義怒時,成了人類的繼承人;
    19. 當洪水來臨時,因了他,為世界保存了餘生;
    20. 天主與他立定了一個永久的盟約:一切有肉軀的生物,再不遭受洪水的摧殘。
    21. 亞巴郎是萬民的大父,對於光榮,沒有人比得上他。他遵守了至高者的法律,又同他訂立了盟約。
    22. 他在自己身上堅定了盟約,在受試探時,證明自己是忠誠的。
    23. 因此,天主起誓許下:要在他的民族中光榮他;要使萬民因他的苗裔而蒙受祝福;要使他的子孫多得像地上的塵土;
    24. 要提拔他的後裔,如天上的繁星;要把從這海到那海,從大河直到地極之間的土地,賜給他們當作產業。
    25. 至於依撒格,因他父親亞巴郎的緣故,天主也向他確定了同樣的事。
    26. 上主將萬人的祝福與盟約,寄託在雅各伯頭上;
    27. 上主藉自己的祝福,承認他為長子;賜給他產業,將他的產業分給十二支派。
    28. 讚揚梅瑟

    29. 上主使雅各伯的後裔中,出現了一位慈善的人,他在眾人眼前甚為得寵;

    西方二元靈知論:歷史與神話



    http://www.answers.com/topic/ioan-p-culianu
    Gnoses dualistes d'Occident. English
    書名 The tree of gnosis : gnostic mythology from early Christianity to modern nihilism / Ioan P. Couliano ; translated into English by H.S. Wiesner and the author
    主要作者 Culianu, Ioan P
    出版項 [San Francisco] : HarperSanFrancisco, 1992
    版本項 1st HarperCollins ed
    評等 No one has rated this material 說明

    館藏地 索書號 條碼 狀態 說明
    總圖2F人社資料區 B638 C8513 1991 [鄰近架位館藏]


    Les Gnoses dualistes d'Occident: Histoire et mythes, Paris, Plon, 1990; The Tree of Gnosis, New York, HarperCollins, 1992; Gnozele dualiste ale Occidentului. Istorie si mituri, Bucureşti, Nemira, 1995; Iaşi, Polirom, 2002(2)

    The Tree of Gnosis : Gnostic Mythology from Early Christianity to Modern Nihilism
    , San Francisco, HarperCollins, 1992; Arborele gnozei. Mitologia gnostică de la creştinismul timpuriu la nihilismul modern, Bucureşti, Nemira, 1999

    西方二元靈知論(簡體書)
    I S B N:7208086664
    I S B N 13:9787208086661
    作 者:(美)庫里亞諾
    精平裝/頁數: 平裝本 / 332頁
    出版社:上 海人民出版社
    出版日: 2009/08/01

    內容簡介

    《西方二元靈知論:歷史與神話》講述了:西方對靈知派的研究著作汗牛充棟,但中國讀者對靈知派的了解仍教模糊。《西方二元靈知論:歷史與神話》可說是一本 我國讀者真正能讀得進去的概論性的著作。在《西方二元靈知論:歷史與神話》中,作者對作為觀念體的西方二元論諸思潮進行了系統的分析,對歷史上的宗教學派 的代表觀點作了深入的揭示和批判。使讀者弄清靈知派和靈知主義的歷史沿革,進而更好地了解西方的思想文化沿革。靈知派在早期基督教教派的政治沖突活動中, 是一個相當重要的教派,其思想影響在西方學術思潮的發展過程中有著重要地位。

    目次

    譯者序
    前言
    英譯本前言
    致謝
    略語表
    靈知派研究文獻
    導論
    英譯本導論
    第一章 二元論問題
    第 二章 西方二元論年表
    第三章 靈知派神話分析
    第四章 墮落的智慧
    第五章 無知的德牧革
    第六章 對律法和實際父親的廢除:西諾普的馬西昂
    第七章 摩尼教神話
    第八章 大眾馬西昂派:保羅派
    第九章 一種假二元論神話:鮑格米勒派
    第 十章 清潔派的兩種宗教
    第十一章 西方二元論:一種共時分析
    第十二章 現代虛無主義與靈知派
    跋 人類玩的游戲
    參考文獻
    附 錄一 人名對照
    附錄二 地名對照
    附錄三 思潮與派別名對照
    附錄四 神名對照

    2010年7月20日 星期二

    O. V. de L. MILOSZ/ Bonaventure or Bonaventura, Saint

    Bachelard 四書: 科學精神的形成,火的精神分析,空間詩學/夢想 詩學


    空間詩學 引 RILKE 詩/通信最多
    (Bonaventure or Bonaventura, Saint 的洗盤故事一般找不到...)

    其次可能是 O. V. de L. MILOSZ的一本詩意小說


    ****
    LITUANUS
    LITHUANIAN QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF ARTS AND SCIENCES
    Volume 23, No.2 - Summer 1977
    Editor of this issue: Antanas Klimas
    ISSN 0024-5089
    Copyright © 1977 LITUANUS Foundation, Inc.
    Lituanus

    O. V. de L. MILOSZ AND CERTAIN ASPECTS OF HIS WORK

    JOLITA KAVALIŪNAS
    The University of Akron

    "In 1939," writes André Blanchet, "In the cemetery of Fontainebleau, an unknown writer was buried; one of the truest poets, one of the highest of our language. One of the most demanding, one of the most complete failures. But a failure like Rimbaud and Verlaine. Like Van Gogh. Pardon me, Milosz! You are of those whom France ignores to the last breath, only to don later destinies all the more moving for the tragic misunderstanding; of those whom she does not hear living and to whom she no longer ceases to listen." 1 Thus wrote A. Blanchet about twenty years ago. However, his words are no less appropriate today. One might ask if Milosz is known today. Milosz, this "inspired one, clairvoyant, prophet," this "poetic genius," 2 who, in the words of Jean Rousselot, is not only one of the very greatest poets of our age, but perhaps one of the very greatest of all ages. 3

    Is he known to Lithuania, the land that gave birth to him, the land he passionately loved? Is he known to France, whose literature he enriched with works of deep thought and high esthetic value? and finally, is he known throughout the Western world from which he drew his cultural heritage? It is doubtful whether these questions could be answered affirmatively even though one hundred years have passed from the birth of this great poet.

    Milosz, like Sassol Sinibaldi, in his autobiographical novel L'amoureuse initiation who was "predestined to remembrance" did not forget anything, much less the land of his birth, Lithuania. The landscape and soul of its countryside harmoniously blending with the inner landscape of the poet, was always alive in the depths of his being. The author attests to this in the following words which reveal the physical and spiritual image of the land of his birth:

    Come, I will lead you in the thought towards a strange country, vaporific, shrouded, murmuring. A stroke of the wing, and we will fly above a land where all things have the dim light of remembrances. A perfume of water lilies, a vapor of mossy forest envelopes us. It's Lietuva, Lithuania, the land of Gediminas and Jogaila. The lukewarm and pale sky of the pensive country which opens itself before us in all its freshness of the glance of primitive races, it ignores the sumptuous sadness of ripening. After the lethargy of seven months of winter, it wakes with a start to the sudden beauty of spring and, from mid-September, the fecund renewal which has not engendered summer, reminds us with the choice of crows of the long winter of seven months. Then the perfume of honey of the Lithuanian summer makes place again to this odor of autumn which is like the soul of Lithuania. . 4

    Milosz thus sketched the landscape of his native land, the image of which rose from the depths of his soul where all things are not only shaded in the "hues of remembrances," but also echo the vibrations of his soul. In his unfinished novel Zborowski, undoubtedly containing autobiographical moments, he reveals the soul of an even closer milieu — the home. From it — this home - arises the unceasing melody of memories, sorrows, loneliness and longing.

    This is the home of the past - "la maison du passé. - The past, which is so suggestive of this omnipresent childhood in the work of the poet." 5 To the home of the past, which the poet always carries within his soul "an avenue of weeping willows." And then the door. The door, it seems here, has almost a symbolic meaning, through which we enter a world echoing with silence and mystery:

    The door, the horrible door poorly whitened of the sepulcher of a race, opened on a dark vestibule, from the first step, the mossy and desolate odor of abandonment grabbed you desperately by the throat.6

    Indeed, it is not insignificant when and where a poet is born: whether in the plains inspiring loneliness, or at the foot of a formidable mountain, or on the shores of unremittingly pounding waves. All of that — all of that external world — its sounds and its colors and the depths of its objects affect and form to a greater or lesser degree the character and soul of its creator which is inevitably reflected in his work.

    There is no doubt that this home of the past full of silence and mystery, and the landscape of the native land with which he was intimately united to the depths of his soul, had an influence on his being and, by the same token, on his work. In his book La Poetique de I'espace, the French philosopher Gaston Bachelard discusses the influence of the milieu on the writer, stressing particularly the importance, of the home and its spirit. The home "is our corner of the world," he writes. "It is. . . our first universe." 7 It chisels itself deeply, almost physically, into the depths of man's being. It is "one of the great powers of integration for the thoughts, the remembrances and the dreams of man." 8 The spirit of the home impresses itself indelibly upon man's soul in childhood, which according to G. Bachelard, is more than reality: "Childhood is certainly greater than reality." 9

    Milosz, who was formed "Between the nostalgia of the past and the aspiration to an unknown beatitude" 10 was extremely sensitive not only to the poetic space of the home, but to nature as well, in which he felt and heard echoes of the divine mystery. He was "attentive to all these movements, almost imperceptible, through which nature comes to affirm that it is covered by a divine shudder." 11

    Thus during that childhood, spent in the landscape of his native land and in the spiritual milieu of his home, Milosz's soul did not merely unite with a longing for the past, in it also arose an intimate dialogue of his soul with the external world — the weeping willows, the nettle and the other characters. Somehow, in their outward bearing, there was something familiar to the nostalgia of the poet's soul.

    In Milosz's nostalgia for childhood arose the feeling of loneliness, which, according to Bachelard, is significant from the creative aspect to man's being ". . .these spaces of solitude are constituent." 12 Milosz himself emphasizes the significance of this loneliness upon creativity. This is confirmed by René de Berval in his letter to Silvaire: "It was," he said to me, "in order to make me understand better the importance of solitude, its creative importance which must be fecund through Poetry. The meaning of the latter is exactly this solitude of which it is mother and child at the same time: it creates them while it is being created by it." 13

    However, Milosz's solitude is not dramatic. It is rather an inner concentration and somewhat like a center, in which the other main aspects of the poet's soul were formed and from which they radiate. Those are his childhood memories, longing for the past, suffering and love, which transcends to the metaphysical level and becomes a deep longing to meet with God and to rest in him: "It is in the Lord, it is in his peace, that I want to sleep and rest." 14

    If childhood which, according to G. Bachelard, is greater than reality, becomes deeply and indelibly embedded in the soul of many a man, then it leaves even more permanent marks in the soul of a sensitive writer bestowing certain tonality upon his works and illuminating all in the light of the innermost self.

    Childhood, marked with the spirit of the "home of the past," is deeply reflected in the work of Milosz. It can be affirmed that to our poet, who was truly "predestined to remembrances," childhood was the world which sought his entire life. "All his life," states A. Šlepetys, "Milosz seeks a port, a calm land and he finds it in this Céréia of memory, full of peace and silence, encircled by sleeping and dense forests." His childhood becomes for him another world, a world which seems to him nearer to his heart, a world of purety, which he strives to reach with all his might. He will not renounce the theme of childhood. Its memoirs will obsess him to his death."15

    And indeed that distant but never vanishing world of the past and of childhood reveals itself very often in the poetry of Milosz and echoes in the intimate and subtle vibrations of the poet's soul. In the poem "In the Land of Childhood. . ." from the collection of The Seven Solitudes, Milosz, with sadness and pain arising from his soul, writes about the land of days of childhood, found in the lament: "In the Land of childhood found in tears."

    This land of childhood found in tears, this past beyond the boundaries of time —"un passé hors du temps," does not reveal itself as the serenity of the carefree days of childhood and does not echo in the melody of light. In it, as in many of his poems, one senses deep sorrow and suffering. And everything - - that entire external milieu having risen in his soul, is transfigured by the melancholy arising from the depths of his being and colored by the vibrations of his soul. That is deep sorrow, emphasized by the refrain following each paragraph. "But the day rains on the emptiness of everything." It reveals that which has already passed in reality, but still remains within the poet's soul:

    What words, what terribly old music
    Shuddering in me of your unreal presence,
    Somber dove of days far, mild, beautiful,
    What melodies in echo in the sleep?
    Under what fallen branches of very old solitude.
    In what silence, what melody or what
    Voice of a sick child can you be found, oh beautiful,
    Oh Chaste, o music heard in sleep? —
    But the kay rains on the emptiness of everything.16

    (Dans un pays d'enfance)

    The echoes of the past, of childhood, are often heard as well in his other poems. The horses of the past neigh in his poem "Grincement doux," which reveals the spirit of the evening of the past, — as well as the mood and attitude of its objects. In his poem "The Year was of the times of remembrances," there is the sorrowful melody of everything passing, of hearts being consoled by nothing.

    The year was of the time of remembrances
    The month was of the moon of roses,
    The heart were of those that nothing consoles
    (L'anne était du temps des souvenirs, p. 110)

    In general, many of Milosz's poems echo either the past or the tones of the spirit of the past — the voice which is like the sound of the moon, in which June's echo comes to quench its thirst:

    Your voice is like a moon sound in the old well
    Where the echo, the echo of June comes to drink.

    (Et surtout que Denial p. 114)

    That past is also conjured "In the wind of the old cemetery". . and in the lamplight, and in the twilight, which always brings "a little of the good old days;"

    Don't wake the lamp, this twilight is our friend
    It never comes without bringing a little of the good old days.

    However, in this nostalgia for the past as well as in the remembrances of the distant childhood, which are so frequent in his poetry and in which echo a quiet sadness and sorrow, there is neither pessimism nor black hopelessness. And that is rightly brought out by Jean Audard in his excellent article "La poete de I'ame" who says that "this remembrance of distant childhood (in space as in time) with this nuance of regret which is nevertheless quite distant from despair:" 17

    If was a long lime ago listen, bitter love of the other world
    It was very far, very far — listen well, my sister from here
    —I
    In the native Septentrion where big water lilies of the lakes
    Raise an odor of the first times, a vapor of pommeraise of sunken legends

    sings Milosz in "The Unfinished Symphony."

    Nevertheless, even though we do not feel a black pessimism in Milosz's poetry, we do sense a sadness of an existential nature. A deep sorrow rises from old cemeteries, avenues covered with dead leaves or cupboards, reeking with graves. . . "all that speaks of poverty, of decreptitude, of suffering and of death." 18 And all of that — the poet's nostalgia for childhood days long gone by, and the revelation of the milieu of those days, in which everything is illuminated by the colors of his soul, rises from the home of the past, embedded and still alive in the depths of his being, transfigured in his soul. That is the home of his childhood of which he writes in "The Unfinished Symphony."

    That home, where his "father after long voyages had come to die," and which like a never vanishing world of childhood, was forever alive in the poet's soul and in his poetry.

    * * *

    "To this regret of an almost symbolic childhood, tied to the bittersweet perfume of the vaporific Lithuania, joins itself a feeling — also bittersweet of an irreparable solitude," 19 affirms Jean Audard. Maybe even more so in solitude, whose significance in creativity is emphasized by Milosz himself, in which his longing for childhood and the past in general was revealed.

    Solitude followed Milosz all throughout life. According to Armand Godoy, "Solitude was the true mother of Milosz and his incomparable mistress." 20 And the motif of solitude is frequent in his work, and its meaning is deep and significant. In the poem "The symphony of September" from the Seven Solitudes, Milosz longs for solitude, waits for it as for a dear guest, and calls it by the name of mother.

    Welcome, you who come to meet me
    In the echo of my own footsteps, from depths of the dim and cold corridor of time
    Welcome, solitude my mother.

    (Symphonie de Septembre)

    Milosz projects himself into distant regions of time and space in the poem dedicated to the legendary queen of Thebes Karomana - "My thoughts belong to you, queen Karomana of the very old times." In this past, with a comparison to the sphinx of the desert he reveals his soul, marked with the sign of solitude.

    You know without a doubt, o legendary Karomana!
    That my soul is old like the song of the sea

    And solitary like the sphinx in the desert. . . .,
    Karomana

    It is noteworthy that the spiritual solitude of the poet of The Seven Solitudes is present not only in his poetry, not only where it naturally arises from the exterior or milieu, from the attitude of the nature of objects and from their depths - "In the solitary train station," and "where grows my sister nettle, obscure and abandoned." And it is not there alone that is felt in the wind at night "the voice of the wind in the night."It exists as well in the dramatic work of Milosz.

    In this respect his mystery Mephiboseth is noteworthy. The main character of this drama, Mephiboseth, has come 17 C from the pages of the Bible into the literature of the Western world. One must point out that Milosz's interpretation of Mephiboseth differs in essence from the biblical concept of this character. The biblical Mephiboseth is actively involved in the political life of that era, whereas in the mystery of Milosz he is primarily a character of solitude.

    He lives in Lodebar's solitude, under the care of the blind shepherd Makir. In the winter he would warm himself blowing on embers and would listen to the water boil, and in the summer he would sit in front of the door and watch the woman going to the well and the cloud flying by the sea. And then "when the proud Noon of God would come," he, having uttered: "Blessed be the Eternal One," would lie down between the stones of the road.

    Upon Dacid's orders, Tsiba finds Mephiboseth and brings him to the king's palace. However, Mephiboseth is restless here. Having completed his mission - having disclosed David's crime, he resolves to return to the solitude from which he was taken away. As the south wind blows, he feels the longing of Lodebar and the home of the old Makir, and he leaves having stressed with worlds in a rising crescendo the incomparable value of solitude:

    Now, I can say that I lived among men. I know how they love, I know how they cry. But nothing equals Solitude.

    Isn't it strange? My heart is closer to the stone of the road than to the heart of my brother. But nothing equals Solitude.

    I like the morning salutation of man, and the evening song of the spinner and the laughter of the child in the sunlight. But nothing equals the solence of Solitude.

    But this solitude, which Mephiboseth had so missed, is not the solitude in which man comes to feel spiritual emptiness. Rather, it is a deep inner concentration, uniting man's soul with the Creator, whose presence is felt everywhere. This is emphasized by Mephiboseth himself, who says that "In all space, there is not solitude. The very air that one breaths is breath of a father."

    In the solitude of Lodebar as well as in the stone of the road Mephiboseth experiences the closeness of God. And within it — in the longing for solitude arises the home of remembrances: "we have a beautiful house of remembrances," to which departs Mephiboseth and which is always vitally present in Milosz's soul, in which arose other aspects of the poet's being and work: suffering and love — the two great guides of his path leading to God whom he longed for and desired.

    Even though suffering as evil does not belong to the category of being and is not an ontological object, it is nevertheless "an ineradicable part of life" 21 and accompanies man from the cradle to the grave. In suffering, the biblical character Job curses the day of his birth "let the day which saw me born perish," 22 until he finally humbles himself and accepts everything which is destined for him from the hands of the Creator.

    Suffering is present in the works of Milosz, particularly in the mystery Mephiboseth where it makes its way into the house of David. "But you were a bad son," Mephiboseth reproaches David, "and the Father sends you a father's pain. Bow your head and pray: for your father's pain has entered the house." And David's words "O Father of our fathers: with what love you love the pain of man," reveals the deep significance of suffering transcends the boundaries of this life and unites suffering man with his Creator through metaphysical mystery.

    That is particularly emphasized by Milosz in his philosophical work Les Arcanes. The author of this work states that the mystery of absolute identification of God with sinful mankind will be reached, only when the given dues will be paid for it: "The third phase of the sacrificial mystery. . . will become accessible to our intelligence only when we will have paid all of the prescribed tribute of tears." 23

    Suffering, whose meaning transcends the boundaries of this life and which unites man with the metaphysical world arises and blossoms in Milosz's work, even though he does not write about it directly. We sense it in the poet's love for Karomana - "it is ridiculous and sad to love the queen Karomana," it arises from the old graveyard where we hear echoes of the existential footsteps of man's fate. Suffering is particularly revealed in one of his most beautiful poems "All the dead are drunk. . . ," where we recognize our own destiny: "where a part of our being recognizes itself" and where "the destiny finds itself confronted with our transitory existence." 24

    Perhaps the most important and the most striking aspect of the writings of Milosz is love. Love "dominates the entire work of our poet." 25 It is also the major signpost to God.

    When David asks Mephiboseth who revealed David's secret of crime, this character of solitude of Lodebar answers: "Love, O David: the wise Love, the Unique, the Eternal, the Omnipresent, the Ail-Powerful."

    David himself stresses the importance of love in his monologue: "O Love! how necessary you are to me! . . O love! why are you dead? What are we without you?" The love motif is frequent in all of the poetry of Milosz. In the "Unfinished Symphony" he compares love to an inner sun of the land of memory: "I felt that Love like an interior sun was rising upon the old lands of memory," and the terror of human peace without love: "It is the terrible peace of men without love."

    However, "this love does not limit itself, not even in the beginning, to the human creature: it reaches out to nature, to the cosmos, to God." 26 This quality of love is stressed by David in the mystery of Mephiboseth. To him woman's love is "like the sun of uncertain days; as soon as a cloud passes in the wind the shadow falls upon the heart."

    This love is also reflected in Milosz's novel L'Amoureuse initiation where Comte-Duc search for it is fruitless: "I sought love where I had any hope of finding it; and remained solitary in the midst of a crowd of the blind and the deaf." Love here is "a sort of mystical ascension where the love of woman marvelously transforms itself into cosmic love and finally becomes cosmic Love alone - - the Love of God." 27

    The love of woman, transcending into the level of God, is revealed in Milosz's chef-d'oeuvre Miguel Manara, where the sinful paths of the ennobled Don Juan leads to the Highest. Here, in the words of A. Godoy, "The Don Juan of the 'Seven Solitudes' and the one of L'Amoureuse initiation have been transformed there into the ideal donjuanism, the human incarnation of divine love." 28

    It is love which Milosz cites as the only reality in the "Psalm of the King of Beauty" "All reality is in the love of the Father." The Father and the Lord, for whom he longed and in whom he sought peace and rest.

    Finally, it is necessary to note that frequently in the same world of poetry or prose there is present not only the dominant theme of love, but the other themes as well: nostalgia for childhood, solitude, sorrow and suffering.

    Everywhere we find the same song of the poet's soul which in the words of "Talita Cumi," is "a song of all the dawns of childhood." The basic motifs are heard in "Karomana," in "The Symphony of September," and in "The Unfinished Symphony."

    It is also heard in his psalms - "Psalm of the King of Beauty," "Psalm of the Re-integration." Finally it also echoes from "The Cantique of Knowledge," where "all comes to an end in prayer which constitutes the true Certainty." 29

    This song of the soul of Milosz and its basic motifs, love in particular, rises from his novel L'Amoureuse initiation and from his mysteries Mephiboseth and Miguel Manam. Love arises from love for woman to the love of God and helps facilitate contact with one's being. Pinamonte experiences this intimate contact: "love made me penetrate into the essence of my being," This love is present in the novel of Milosz; love which does not come from without but from within' reveals truth in Mephiboseth. Finally, everything — sin and love rising to the transcendental heights - - is revealed in his chef-d'ouvre, the mystery Miguel Manara, which, in A. Richter's words, "is the drama of death, of silence, and of solitude before being that of love." 30

    Those are the features and some of the aspects of Milosz's creative world, transfigured by his poetic soul. His world echoes with an unceasing nostalgia for the past, for childhood and for solitude. There is the melody of suffering and love, frequently rising from the earth and going into infinity.

    This world of his is illuminated not only by the colors of his spiritual tonality, the colors of silence and of time, but also by the colors of his soul and the various nuances of the echoes of his own being. In the world of this great poet and mystic, arise deep existential questions concerning man's destiny.

    The entire poetic space of Milosz, this "French poet and writer of Lithuanian origin" is filled with the melody of longing for childhood, of solitude, of suffering and of love. The poet's soul is revealed through words and rhythms that give the exterior world a particular tonality and a certain spiritual life.

    Through the magic of the poetic image which "strives towards the infinite," (31) Milosz faces his fate. From this contact poetry is born, which rises above this world and reaches the mystic and transcendental regions.

    1 André Blanchet, "Le Destin bizarre du grand Milosz" in Eludes, June, 1959, p. 9.
    2 André Silvaire, "Presentation," O. V. de L - Milan. Paris, 1955, p. 9.
    3 Jean Rousselot, O. V. de L - Milosz., Paris, 1955, p. 12.
    4 Text published introducing the special issue Milosz de poesie, p. 42 (quoted by Jean Rousselot, p. 23).
    5 André Silvaire, op, cit., p. 29,
    6 Ibid., p. 30.
    7 Gaston Bachelard, La Poetique de l'espace, Paris, 1961, p. 24.
    8 Ibid., p. 26.
    9 Ibid., p. 33.
    10 Edmond Jaloux, Introduction aux poemes (tome I de l'edition des Oeuvers Completes de Milosz — L.U.F.) quoted by f. Rousselot, p. 40.
    11 Jean Rosselot, po. cit., p. 10.
    12 Gaston Bachelard, op. cit., p. 10.
    13 André Silvaire, op. cit., p. 22.
    15 Aldona Šlepetys, "Milosz et la Lithuanie" in O. V. de L - Milosz, p. 196.
    16 O. V. de L. Milosz, Les Sept Solitudes, in Jean Rousselot's O. V. de L. Milosz, Paris, 1959, p. 10.
    17 Jean Audard, "Le Poete de l'ame", in Collection de lettres, Paris, 1959, p. 84.
    18 Jean Rousselot, op. cit., p, 26.
    19 Jean Audard, op. cit., p. 84.
    20 Armand Godoy, Milosz. le poete de I'amaur, Fribourg en uisse, 1944, p. 57.
    21 Viktor E. Frankl, Man's Search for Meaning, Boston, p, 67.
    22 La Sainte Bible, Les Editions du Serf, Paris, 1972, p. 602.
    23 O. V.de L. - Milosz, Les Arcanes, Paris, 1948, p. 168.
    24 Jean Audard, op, cit., p. 82.
    25 A. Godoy, op. cit.. p. 38.
    26 Ibid.
    27 Ibid., p. 46
    28 Ibid., p. 70.
    29 Ibid., p. 121.
    30 Anna Richter, Mitosz, Paris, 1965, p. 61.
    31 A. Godoy, op. cit., p. 62.

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